Thursday Open Thread | Freedom Riders: The Turning Point

Bernard Lafayette Jr.Bernard Lafayette, Jr. was twenty-two and enrolled as an undergraduate at Nashville’s American Baptist Theological Seminary when he took part in the 1961 Freedom Rides. Lafayette endured jail time in Birmingham, Alabama, riots and firebombings in Montgomery, an arrest in Jackson, Mississippi, and jail time at Parchman State Prison Farm during June 1961. The Rev. Dr. Lafayette, an ordained minister, is a longtime civil rights activist, organizer, and an authority on nonviolent social change. He co-founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960, and he was a core leader of the civil rights movement in Nashville, TN, in 1960 and in Selma, Alabama in 1965. He directed the Alabama Voter Registration Project in 1962, and he was appointed by Martin Luther King, Jr. to be national program administrator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and national coordinator of the 1968 Poor People’s Campaign.

The state of Mississippi’s plan to bankrupt CORE backfired when, on August 14, 1961, all but nine of the Freedom Riders returned to Jackson for their arraignment.

Hallelujah I’m a travellin’
Hallelujah Ain’t it fine
Hallelujah I’m a travellin’
Down freedom’s main line

About SouthernGirl2

A Native Texan who adores baby kittens, loves horses, rodeos, pomegranates, & collect Eagles. Enjoys politics, games shows, & dancing to all types of music. Loves discussing and learning about different cultures. A Phi Theta Kappa lifetime member with a passion for Social & Civil Justice.
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53 Responses to Thursday Open Thread | Freedom Riders: The Turning Point

  1. rikyrah says:


    I still love Huck…..cause he offers to help in his own way…


  2. Ametia says:

    Was wondering when Frank would scream about him being gay and not getting selected becausw of it. AIN’T THIS SOME SHIT

    Frank ‘troubled’ by process of naming interim senator
    January 30, 2013 | By Chris Johnson on January 30, 2013

    …“But let me tell you, there was one thing that sort of troubled me in the discussion about it — nobody was particularly quoted; they attributed something to governor’s office and others — was that the governor would want to appoint someone who’s either a minority or a woman,” Frank added. “And what troubled me is the question of LGBT people was just kind of swept out. I’ve never asked for any appointment based on me being gay, but when they begin talk about the importance of diversity and leave us out, that troubles me.”

    While Cowan’s appointment was hailed a milestone for diversity in terms of race because he’s black, Frank said the lack of attention to being LGBT as a diversity factor suggests those involved with the decision were unaware of President Obama’s inaugural address in which he mentioned the 1969 Stonewall riots in the same line as other iconic civil rights moments.

    “It’s almost as if some people didn’t listen to the president when he said, ‘Seneca, Stonewall and Selma,’ and didn’t hear the Stonewall part,” Frank said.

    Son of a BITCH

  3. Ametia says:

    Elizabeth Warren, Elijah Cummings Call For More Transparency On Failed Foreclosure Reviews
    Posted: 01/31/2013 3:38 pm EST | Updated: 01/31/2013 4:03 pm ES

    hree influential lawmakers on Thursday called for bank regulators to disclose more details of the $8.5 billion foreclosure abuse settlement reached earlier this month and to reveal what happened during the case-by-case review program it abruptly replaced.

    In a letter to the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Federal Reserve, Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) and Rep. Elijah Cummings (D-Md.) wrote that “additional transparency” was necessary to ensure the confidence necessary “to speed recovery in the housing markets.” They asked regulators to turn over the results of the performance reviews of the independent contractors hired to examine the loan files, as well as detailed information about the reviews’ preliminary results, to determine the extent of the harm to the 500,000 people who applied to the program.

    In a separate letter, Rep. Maxine Waters (D-Calif.) called the sudden end of the foreclosure reviews “troubling” and asked that an independent monitor be named to oversee the new deal.

  4. Ametia says:

    I’m getting really TIRED of hearing about Hillary-2016!

  5. Ametia says:

    Congress approves plan to temporarily suspend debt limit

    Congress gave final approval Thursday to a plan to temporarily suspend the legal cap on the $16.4 trillion national debt, lifting the threat of a government default until early August. The measure, approved by the Senate 64-34 Thursday, now goes to President Obama for his signature. Without congressional action, the administration had predicted that the Treasury would run out money to pay the nation’s bills by early March.
    The House passed the bill last week.

    Read more at:

  6. Wee Michelles!

  7. Ametia says:

    Senate to clear debt limit increase for Obama

    Source: AP

    WASHINGTON (AP) — The Senate is poised to permit the government to borrow hundreds of billions of dollars more to meet its obligations, putting off one Washington showdown even as others loom in coming weeks.

    The measure would suspend the $16.4 trillion limit on federal borrowing through May 18, allowing about $450 billion in new debt to be added to the federal ledger, according to an estimate by the Bipartisan Policy Center.

    The Republican-controlled House passed the legislation last week. A successful Senate vote would send the measure to President Barack Obama, who is expected to sign it into law immediately.

    Without the bill, the government would default on its obligations by as early as mid-February.

    The short-term increase in the borrowing cap is the brainchild of House Republicans, who wanted to re-sequence a series of upcoming budget battles, taking the threat of a potentially devastating government default off the table and instead setting up a clash in March over automatic across-the-board spending cuts set to strike the Pentagon and many domestic programs.


    Read more:

  8. Ametia says:

    LO shuts this bitch all the way down

    Shameful creating false scenarios to instill FEAR in women to BUY ASSAULT RIFLES and keep them in their homes around their kids. Fucking nut!

  9. Ametia says:


    At end of tenure as secretary of labor, Hilda Solis reflects on leadership

    After four years in President Obama’s Cabinet, Hilda Solis resigned last week as secretary of labor. Near the end of her tenure, she sat down to tape a video for On Leadership, in which I asked her to share a personal experience that shaped her character and her approach to leadership.

    Her story, as you can watch, was of a high-school guidance counselor who told her she “wasn’t college material” and of the deeper drive that incident inspired in her to prove such doubts wrong.

  10. rikyrah says:

    Teen girl’s killing ignites widespread outrage: ‘Why did it have to be her’
    By Jennifer Delgado, Bridget Doyle and Jeremy GornerTribune reporters
    12:09 a.m. CST, January 31, 2013

    With outrage over Hadiya Pendleton’s slaying spreading from City Hall to the White House, the 15-year-old became a symbol Wednesday of escalating violence in Chicago while fueling the national debate over guns and crime.

    A little more than a week after performing with the King College Prep band in Washington during President Barack Obama’s inauguration festivities, Hadiya was fatally shot Tuesday afternoon in a park about a mile north of Obama’s Kenwood home. Two other teens were wounded.

    At a White House press briefing Wednesday, Obama spokesman Jay Carney was asked about Hadiya’s death. “It’s a terrible tragedy any time a young person is struck down with so much of their life ahead of them, and we see it far too often,” he said.

    Hadiya’s slaying also came up in an interview Obama did with Telemundo. The president was asked whether the example of Chicago, with strict gun control laws, gave credence to the National Rifle Association’s position that more gun laws don’t necessary mean less gun violence.

    “Well, the problem is that a huge proportion of those guns come in from outside Chicago,” Obama said. The president said it was true that creating a “bunch of pockets of gun laws” without a unified, integrated system of background checks makes it harder for a single community to protect itself from gun violence.

    Police announced an $11,000 reward for information leading to the killer’s capture and conviction during a Wednesday afternoon news conference at the North Kenwood park where Hadiya was shot.

    “I want this closed now,” said police Supt. Garry McCarthy, who was among the police chiefs in Washington on Monday to meet with Obama on gun control. “I don’t want to wait.”

    Hadiya was the 42nd homicide victim this year in Chicago, where killings last year climbed above 500. Mayor Rahm Emanuel spoke with Hadiya’s mother Wednesday morning and later, at an unrelated news conference, said the teenager represented “what is best in our city.”

    “A child going to school, who takes a final exam, who had just been to inaugural,” said Emanuel, looking down at the podium for several seconds to collect himself before continuing. “And I think if anybody has any information, you are not a snitch, you’re a citizen. You’re a good citizen in good standing if you help.”

    Hadiya’s father, Nathaniel Pendleton, pleaded for someone to step forward and bring the 15-year-old’s killer to justice.

    “She was destined for great things,” he said.

    Hadiya was a majorette with the band at King, one of the city’s elite selective-enrollment schools. She dreamed of going to Northwestern University and talked about becoming a pharmacist or a journalist, maybe a lawyer.,0,3581598.story

  11. rikyrah says:

    Slate: How Tina Fey changed TV

    By Jen ChaneySlate
    January 30, 2013

    As the final episode of “30 Rock” approaches and America prepares to bid its harried, comedy-star-herding heroine a last blerg-bye, Liz Lemon is already being celebrated by the media as one of the more memorable female characters in the history of television. Tributes are being paid. Lists of her memorable quotes have been assembled. Her image recently appeared in the supporting Lois Lane role on the cover of Rolling Stone, prompting outraged blog posts because — hello? — Liz Lemon, not Jack Donaghy, is our Superman.

    None of this is surprising. While the audience for “30 Rock” was never massive, among many affection for the show and Liz Lemon has always run deep. From the moment Lemon first appeared in the 2006 “30 Rock” pilot, bought every hot dog from a street vendor’s stand to shut up a rude New York businessman, then gave away those wieners to the tune of a song reminiscent of the theme from “That Girl,” we have expected Liz Lemon and Tina Fey, the show’s creator and Lemon’s real-life alter ego, to usher in a fresh, fruitful era for funny ladies on television.

    If our Tina — first female head writer for “Saturday Night Live” and the stinging satirist behind the movie “Mean Girls” — could be put in charge of her own show about a woman who’s also in charge of her own show, then surely this would lead to a TV landscape in which, to borrow the title of Fey’s book, a lot of ladies would soon be walking across our LED screens wearing bossypants. At least that was the hope. Now, with all 138 “30 Rock” episodes in the can and just that one final send-off left to air, this seems like a good time to ask: Did the existence of Liz Lemon actually change anything for women on television?

    Fey’s “30 Rock” success — and let’s define success here by the show’s longevity, quality and accolades, not its often pitiful ratings — just so happened to occur on the front end of what has been a very encouraging time for women working in the industry. More high-profile comedies — from “Girls” to “The Big C” to “Enlightened” to “The New Girl” and “The Mindy Project,” which serve as anchors for Fox’s Tuesday night comedy block — are being created or co-created by women and placing dynamic, dysfunctional and funny female characters at the center of their narratives. Shows that weren’t necessarily invented by women — “Parks” and “Recreation” and “Veep” — also have generated buzz while casting women as central figures in powerful positions. Are Tina Fey and/or Liz Lemon responsible for this? Maybe not directly. But many of the women riding this wave, like Kaling and Fey’s friend and partner in Golden Globes-hosting, genius Amy Poehler, would likely cite Fey’s simultaneously self-deprecating and cutting sensibility — both on “30 Rock” and in her previous work — as an inspiration for their own.,0,3075853.story

  12. rikyrah says:

    ThinkProgress: 5 Reasons To Be Optimistic The Republican Election-Rigging Plan Is Dead (And 3 Reasons It’s Not)

    Two weeks ago, Republican National Committee Chair Reince Priebus called upon “states that have been consistently blue that are fully controlled red” to consider a Republican plan to rig future presidential races……

    Six states potentially fit Priebus’ description of a blue state that is currently controlled by Republicans — Florida, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Wisconsin. To date, senior Republicans in four of these states have either voted down the plan or indicated that it will not be taken up in the first place, and the governor of a fifth state has expressed concerns about the plan…

    So the Republican Plan is officially dead in one state and lacks the support of essential lawmakers in three states. Of the two states where it is decidedly still alive — Pennsylvania and Wisconsin — the top Republican in one of those states says he has concerns about the plan. Nevertheless, supporters of democracy should not break out the champagne yet because there are three reasons to be frightened that the plan could reemerge.

    The first is that the plan is still alive and well in Pennsylvania, which has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in every single election for more than two decades. Both Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Corbett (R) and state Senate Majority Leader Dominic Pileggi (R) support rigging the Electoral College.

    The second is that a slightly modified verson of the plan could still reemerge in the states where it appears dead. Indeed, Pileggi already proposed modifying the plan in Pennsylvania to allocate electoral votes proportionally according to the total popular vote in the state, rather than by congressional district. This version of the election-rigging plan would award less electoral votes to Republicans, because it does not take advantage of gerrymandering, but it would still put a rule in place only in blue states, while leaving red states like Texas free to give all their electoral votes to the Republican candidate.

  13. rikyrah says:

    I’m telling you, a Sista might be moving soon….

    Work continues toward single-payer system in Vermont

    January 30, 2013 | Anthony Brino, Contributing Editor

    The Green Mountain Care Board (GMCB), recently outlined its second year of work as it helps guide the state towards a publicly financed single payer healthcare system by 2017.

    In addition to regulating commercial insurance rates and community hospital budgets, the independent advisory board is overseeing several payment and delivery models for Medicare, Medicaid and commercial payers going into 2015, as some of the plans for the single-payer transition (including the health insurance exchange) are still being designed.

    With a five-member board and a staff of 16, the GMCB has pending proposals with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to test several payment models based around shared savings accountable care organizations, bundled payments and pay for performance.

    In 2012, the GMCB coordinated and helped design several payment reform models. In St. Johnsbury, the board is guiding a coordinated oncology care pilot that’s somewhat experimental, with doctors and providers helping design the future payment contracts and Lebanon, N.H.-based Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center researchers tracking performance.

    In Rutland, the GMCB is working with a federally qualified health clinic and the Rutland Regional Medical Center, the state’s second largest hospital, to developed physician- and hospital-based global budget payment systems. The GMCB is also developing standards for accountable care organizations and integrated care networks that can cover both commercially-insured Vermonters and Medicaid members.

    In its regulatory authority, as established by the 2011 state law known as Act 48, the GMBC has provided financial oversight of providers and payers, while also acting as a consumer ombudsman and incorporating public comment processes into planning.

    In 2012, the GMCB reviewed and approved budgets for the state’s 14 community hospitals, including Rutland Regional and Fletcher Allen Health Care, setting target increases for net patient revenue of 3.75 percent for the 2013 fiscal year, down from 4.5 and 4 percent during the past two years.

    The GMCB also developed its role in setting insurance rates in 2012, reviewing, approving or modifying the decisions of the Department of Financial Regulation, with the process open to public comment.

  14. rikyrah says:

    Seems I’m not the only one noticing that Rubio is nothing but a sham and a fraud.


    Who Says There is a Rubio Plan?

    by BooMan
    Wed Jan 30th, 2013 at 11:13:13 PM EST

    I hear people talking about Marco Rubio’s plan to do comprehensive immigration reform, but I can’t find the plan. He’s been giving interviews, and I can try to piece together a plan by reading transcripts of those interviews. The fullest explanation I could find was in a column/interview written by Matthew Kaminski in the Wall Street Journal. Then there is the brief press release that Rubio issued in response to the president’s plan. I actually agree with Marc Caputo’s take on Rubio’s plan. He is being purposefully vague on details.
    What piqued my interest was seeing Erick Son of Erick’s declaration that he doesn’t like Rubio’s plan. I tried to understand his argument. I really did. I even followed his link to Ben Domenech’s objections, but I found his column almost impenetrable, as well. Some of the charges that Mr. Erickson levels at Rubio’s “plan” don’t seem to be warranted by what Rubio has so far put on the record.

    I was confused almost immediately.

    On the specific plan, for lack of legislation, it is clearly written by a group of men who seemingly love government, but do not love free markets, small businesses, or individuals. It is a plan based on faith in government, not free enterprise or the American people

    I read that first sentence about twelve times before I began to have confidence that it didn’t contain fatal typos and might actually be an honest effort to communicate. There is no specific plan. Rubio is not a “group of men.” Erickson appears to be conflating “Rubio’s plan” with the plan of the Group of Eight. But the Group of Eight includes Democrats Chuck Schumer, Dick Durbin, Michael Bennet, and Bob Menendez. Rubio is also part of the group, but their plan isn’t his plan. It’s not Jeff Flake’s plan, or Lindsey Graham’s plan, or John McCain’s plan. It is the Group of Eight’s plan.

    In any case, Erickson seems to think that he knows what is in Rubio’s plan. I’m guessing that he is just assuming that Rubio’s plan is the same as the Gang of Eight’s plan, although Rubio has been out freelancing all over the place.

  15. Ametia says:

    POTUS is coming to Minneapolis!

    Obama’s Minneapolis trip will focus on gun violence
    By Devin Henry | 01/30/13.

    WASHINGTON — President Obama’s Monday visit to Minneapolis will be to “discuss with local leaders and law enforcement officials his comprehensive set of common-sense ideas to reduce gun violence,” according to a White House spokesperson.

    “Minneapolis is a city [that] has taken important steps to reduce gun violence and foster a conversation in the community about what further action is needed,” White House spokeswoman Joanna Rosholm said in a statement. “President Obama will visit with members of the community about their experiences and discuss additional steps that can be taken at the federal level to reduce gun violence.”

  16. rikyrah says:

    10 facts about Mo Cowan

    By BREANNA EDWARDS | 1/30/13 2:19 PM EST

    His name has been ringing in political ears since Massachusetts Gov. Deval Patrick selected him Wednesday to fill soon-to-be Secretary of State John Kerry’s Senate seat. But who exactly is William “Mo” Cowan? Here are 10 facts that you need to know about Massachusetts’s interim U.S. senator.

    1. Cowan is close to the governor. He served as Patrick’s legal counsel when he was hired in 2009, before being promoted a year later to chief of staff. He stepped down from the position this month, announcing his intention to leave late last year. However, he was still a senior adviser to Patrick.

    2. The 43-year-old will be the second African-American to ever serve Massachusetts in the U.S. Senate. His predecessor was Edward Brooke, who served 1967-1979 and was the first African-American elected to Senate by popular vote.

    3. Cowan has no prior elected government experience at all. However, he is active in his community, serving on several local school boards.

    4. When Gov. Mitt Romney was being criticized for the lack of diversity in appointing judges, Cowan helped the Republican find minority lawyers to fill the positions. He aided Middlesex District Attorney Gerard T. Leone Jr. in similar appointments and is also credited with helping to attract more black lawyers to the prominent law firm Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo.

    5. At the law firm, Cowan gave etiquette lessons to summer associates. He was a partner at the law firm from 1997 to 2009.

    6. Cowan is married and has two young sons. His wife, Stacy, is also a lawyer.

    7. He originally wanted to become a doctor, before taking freshman chemistry at Duke University in Durham, N.C. He was the first person from his high school to attend the university.

    Read more:

  17. rikyrah says:

    George Zimmerman defense releases new Trayvon Martin picture

    The attorney for George Zimmerman, the neighborhood watchman charged with shooting and killing Trayvon Martin, has released a new picture of 17-year-old Martin as part of discovery on Wednesday.

    Attorney Mark O’Mara told Local 6 that Martin’s father, Tracy Martin, provided what the defense team says is a much more accurate picture of his son to Sanford Police Department on Feb. 27, 2012 — the day after the shooting.

    O’Mara says his defense team believes that the picture Martin’s family provided to the media, depicting a younger Trayvon Martin, is unfair to Zimmerman. O’Mara says many in the public still view Martin as a young boy because of one of the first pictures released of him.

  18. rikyrah says:

    Dana Milbank: Wayne LaPierre, the National Rifle Association’s chief executive, arrived for his hearing on Capitol Hill in the organization’s trademark fashion: violently.

    When he and his colleagues stepped off the elevator in the Dirksen Senate Office Building on Wednesday morning and found TV cameras waiting in the hallway, LaPierre’s bodyguards swung into action. One of them, in blatant violation of congressional rules, bumped and body-checked journalists out of the way so they couldn’t film LaPierre or question him as he walked.

    “You don’t have jurisdiction here!” a cameraman protested as an NRA goon pushed him against a wall. After the melee, congressional officials informed the NRA officials that, in the halls of Congress, they had to follow congressional procedures — which prohibit manhandling.

    • Ametia says:

      Let this have been a brotha manhandling cameramen in the halls of Congress. Just saying. The families of Newtown should have been present, not La Pierre. and athe NRA.

  19. rikyrah says:

    Greg Sargent: Perhaps the most important moment so far in today’s Senate Judiciary hearing on guns came when astronaut Mark Kelly directly confronted NRA head Wayne LaPierre over the shooting of his wife, Gabrielle Giffords. Between that exchange and another one involving Senator Dick Durbin, LaPierre’s argument was completely unmasked for the sham that it is.

    During the hearing, LaPierre repeatedly voiced the talking point that there’s no need to expand the background check system because criminals don’t cooperate with background checks. Kelly responded:

    “The Tucson shooter was an admitted drug user. He was rejected from the U.S. Army because of his drug use. He was clearly mentally ill. And when he purchased that gun in November, his plan was to assassinate my wife and commit mass murder at that Safeway in Tucson. He was a criminal …. but because of these gaps in the mental health system, in this case, those 121,000 records, I admit did not include a record on him. But it could have. And if it did, he would have failed that background check. ….”

  20. rikyrah says:

    Good Morning, SG2, Ametia, CPL and Everyone at 3CHICS!

  21. Robert Kennedy’s 1961 prediction that a negro could be President of The United States in the foreseeable future.

    • Robert F. Kennedy became Attorney General in January 1961, after his brother John F. Kennedy won election as President of the United States. Robert Kennedy had given a speech expressing the administration’s support of civil rights to a Southern white audience a few days after the start of the Freedom Rides on May 6. However the issue was not yet a major priority for a Kennedy White House preoccupied with Cold War politics.

      Caught off guard by the violence that erupted during the May 14 Anniston, AL bus burning and the riot at Birmingham Trailways Bus Station, Robert Kennedy dispatched special assistant John Seigenthaler to Birmingham, AL to aid the embattled CORE Freedom Riders. Seigenthaler helped arrange a plane flight from Birmingham to New Orleans, LA. Robert Kennedy sought protection for the Riders by Alabama state officials like Gov. John Patterson, with limited success, eventually sending in U.S. Marshals to protect the Riders during the May 21 siege and firebombing of the First Baptist Church.

  22. Freedom Riders - The Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, right, is stopped before entering the whites only waiting room at the Bus Terminal March 6, 1957, in Birmingham, Ala

    The Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, right, is stopped before entering the whites only waiting room at the Bus Terminal March 6, 1957, in Birmingham, Ala. This photo was made one day after the Alabama Public Service Commission ruled that the waiting rooms must remain segregated. Shuttlesworth informed the media of his plans to integrate the waiting rooms and was followed by reporters, photographers and a white mob estimated at more than 100. After being told that he was not wanted inside, Shuttlesworth replied: “It’s not up to you to tell me where to go.” ( AP Photo/The Birmingham News, Robert Adams.

  23. Freedom Riders -Robert Kennedy

    Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Attorney General and brother of President John F. Kennedy, sits at the Justice Department as he works with aides considering legal measures to be taken following racial violence in Montgomery, Ala., May 21, 1961, Washington, D.C. The riot was touched off by a freedom ride test by mixed whites and African Americans arriving there from Birmingham, Ala., May 20. He ordered a task force of U.S. Marshals and Byron R. White, Deputy U.S. Attorney General, to the area to safeguard federal rights. (AP Photo/Byron Rollins

  24. Freedom Riders- After the Freedom Riders were beaten by a mob at the Montgomery station, federal marshals assembled by Gov. Patterson, wearing bright yellow arm bands, are sent in to keep the calm at the terminal

    After the Freedom Riders were beaten by a mob at the Montgomery station, federal marshals assembled by Gov. Patterson, wearing bright yellow arm bands, are sent in to keep the calm at the terminal.

  25. Freedom Riders - A detachment of National Guardsmen patrols past the Black First Baptist Church on May 23, 1961 in Montgomery after martial law was declared following racial riots. AP Photo-Horace Cort

    A detachment of National Guardsmen patrols past the Black First Baptist Church on May 23, 1961 in Montgomery after martial law was declared following racial riots. (AP Photo/Horace Cort

  26. The Media

    The Freedom Rides were successful in large part because they were able to engage the media and gain a sympathetic national audience. A handful of reporters and photographers from the black press and one freelance writer affiliated with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) accompanied the Riders on the buses during CORE’s original May 4 Freedom Ride. Other than these journalists, initial news coverage of the Rides was mixed or strongly negative. Early news accounts criticized “extremists on both sides,” equating civil rights activists with their segregationist opposition. Other editorials characterized the Freedom Riders as “outside agitators,” meddling in communities to which they did not belong — although many of the African-American Riders had been raised in the South.

    The images and eyewitness accounts of May 14, 1961 changed the country’s consciousness. Footage of a burning bus in Anniston, AL shocked the nation, as did photographs of the beatings inflicted during the riot at the Birmingham Trailways Bus Station and of the bandaged face of Freedom Rider James Peck lying in a hospital bed. These pictures were unlike anything that Americans had seen previously. Images brought home the brutality of the white segregationist regime in a way that words alone could not convey. Klan members attacked Birmingham Post-Herald photographer Tommy Langston along with other members of the media and attempted to destroy their film; miraculously, the roll of film inside Langston’s smashed camera survived intact.

  27. Good morning, everyone!

    Mississippi scheme’s backfired on them. Their goal was to crush the Movement but it was an epic fail. I wonder what the officials thought when they saw ALL those students lining up to walk into that courtroom? Watching it is a goosebump moment.

    I’m taking a trip on the Greyhound Bus line; I’m riding the front seat to Jackson this time…

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