Saturday Open Thread | Native American Music & Chants

Native American Ghost DanceNative American Chants & Dances

Dances, songs and chants have played a major role in the culture of Native Americans. Stories and histories have been passed from generation to generation by voice as well as movement, rather than by written word. Dances are performed for a variety of reasons and usually are danced by either women or men only. Chants have special meanings and can last for hours or days. At the center of dance and song is the drum, which traditionally connects Native Americans to their Creator.

Native American Spirituality

Many followers of Native American spirituality, do not regard their spiritual beliefs and practices as a “religion” in the way in which many Christians do. Their beliefs and practices form a integral and seamless part of their very being.

It isn’t hard to see the depth of native American spirituality just by looking at their handmade craft works. Native American spirituality  includes a strong reverence for animal life, the environment, and each other.

Native American spirituality is not the same as the religion of most people. Organized religious meetings are not a part of native American spirituality. History shows that originally, native American spirituality was more of a way of daily life.

We hope you’ve enjoyed 3 Chics’ journey in our tribute to “FIRST NATIONS” people and Native American music. Through chants, drums, percussion, and dance, the music tells of their history of courtships, healings, meditation and spiritual rituals. With a mix of traditional, inter-tribal, and subgenre the transformative sounds and chants will definitely lift your spirits.

If you are of Native American heritage and would like to share lyrics, videos or chants, please feel free to do so. We love learning about artists, their instruments, and the contributions they’ve made to their tribes and our nation.

About SouthernGirl2

A Native Texan who adores baby kittens, loves horses, rodeos, pomegranates, & collect Eagles. Enjoys politics, games shows, & dancing to all types of music. Loves discussing and learning about different cultures. A Phi Theta Kappa lifetime member with a passion for Social & Civil Justice.
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46 Responses to Saturday Open Thread | Native American Music & Chants

  1. rikyrah says:

    Senator Chris Coons ‏@ChrisCoons
    Montgomery Police Chief just gave @repjohnlewis his badge as gesture of respect, reconciliation. Unbelievably moving

  2. rikyrah says:

    Fashion veteran Bethann Hardison on Numéro “African Queen” blackface controversy

    Fashion legend Bethann Hardison saw it as a call to action when she learned of the controversy swirling around Numéro magazine’s spread featuring a white model in bronze make-up so deep, many called it blackface.

    The editorial, called “African Queen,” unleashed a firestorm of disappointment online across fashion and news blogs, with users lamenting that a black model was not cast in an editorial that seemed perfectly suited for someone of African descent.

  3. rikyrah says:


    By mistermix March 2nd, 2013

    I had an interesting conversation with an insurance rep while I was on vacation. She and her husband both sold health insurance to mid-size corporations for one of the big insurance companies, and they were on an award trip because they had been so successful. I asked her what she thought of Obamacare, and she said she had taken special training to become expert in healthcare reform, but not because she expected to sell a lot of insurance. Instead, her reasoning was that she wanted to be positioned for the day that private insurers like her company stopped providing policies on the exchanges.

    Her view was that the regulations accompanying Obamacare made it impossible for insurers to make a profit. (One example among many is mental health care – mandated coverage under Obamacare is far more generous than the average current insurance policy.) So, she expected that private insurers would pull out and be replaced by government-sponsored healthcare. At that point, she’d be positioned to sell the Medigap-style policies that would inevitably accompany Medicare for all.

    She pointed out that her company was one of the leading sellers of insurance in Japan, which has government-sponsored healthcare. Most Japanese buy a policy to buy coverage the government doesn’t provide. She thought there would be the same kind of bonanza here, as soon as we shift to a more Japanese-style system. She didn’t understand why other agents in her company were shying away from learning about Obamacare, while she embraced it as a big opportunity.

    I hadn’t heard this opinion before, but it does make sense. All the Medicare-eligible people I know have some form of Medigap insurance. With Medicare, the main risks (big operations like heart bypass and joint replacement, long, drawn-out fights with cancer) are shouldered by the government. The little risks, like paying the (capped) hospital deductible, or other uncovered services, are shouldered by insurance companies. For Medigap, the government specifies a half-dozen standard policies, each of which covers progressively more of what traditional Medicare doesn’t pay. If Obamagap were structured the same way, it would be a corporate dream come true, because unlike the free market fantasies entertained by Galt’s Gulch fabulists, what corporations really want is a highly structured market with low risk and and well-defined, predictable rewards.

    Of course, the gap in her reasoning is her unwillingness to entertain the notion that insurers would cut costs to make providing Obamacare policies profitable. One of the first place to cut those costs would be the highly compensated direct sales force that is rewarded with trips to Caribbean resorts. Still, I was struck by her matter-of-fact acceptance of the inevitability of Medicare for all, given the current freakout over Obamacare.

  4. rikyrah says:

    Holocaust Researchers Catalog 42,500 Nazi Ghettos, Camps; Numbers Are ‘Unbelievable’

    Posted: 03/02/2013 12:18 pm EST

    Researchers from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum have concluded that over 40,000 Nazi camps and ghettos existed during Hitler’s reign of terror between 1933 to 1945.

    The total is far higher than most historians had previously estimated, according to The New York Times.

    Geoffrey Megargee and Martin Dean, the lead editors of the project, have compiled the thousands of sites in a multivolume encyclopedia that is being published by the Holocaust Museum. Each volume catalogs thousands of sites, providing a comprehensive history of the “living and working conditions, activities of the Jewish councils, Jewish responses to persecution, demographic changes, and details of the liquidation of the ghettos.”

    The Holocaust Museum team also created maps of the sites, which were scattered across Europe, and which imprisoned or killed between 15 and 20 million people.

    Essentially, this study shows the Holocaust was far more extensive than even historians comprehended.

    Hartmut Berghoff, director of the German Historical Institute, said the research is simply astounding, reports The Times.

    “We knew before how horrible life in the camps and ghettos was,” he said, “but the numbers are unbelievable.”

  5. Ametia says:

    Big cuts spur calls to Congress from irate constituents
    Source: Reuters

    Big cuts spur calls to Congress from irate constituents
    By Thomas Ferraro
    WASHINGTON | Sat Mar 2, 2013 2:28pm EST

    (Reuters) – The Congress is getting an earful about the big spending cuts beginning to hit government services from worried and irate constituents, including one senator’s own spouse.

    Democratic Senator Thomas Carper of Delaware said his wife, “my most important constituent,” asked him, “Why can’t you guys get your act together? Do you know what people think of you guys?”

    “I told her that Washington needs to work more like Delaware,” said Carper, a former governor of the state. “In Delaware, Democrats and Republicans work together.”

    They have not worked together in Washington. And so the across-the-board cuts of the so-called “sequester” – which both Republicans and Democrats have said they oppose – took effect Friday night after President Barack Obama and Republican leaders failed to agree on a way to replace them with targeted spending reductions.

    Read more:

  6. rikyrah says:

    Sat Mar 02, 2013 at 07:21 AM PST.

    Confessions of an ex-leftist

    by citizen k .


    Surreptitiously published on KrebsCycle last week.

    Years ago I heard Professor Cornel West speak in New York. It was a virtuoso performance, drawing on Sartre, Marx, Dubois, Douglas, and Dewey and many others I am too ignorant to cite, and in a spectacular style that swung from AME preacher testifying to Malcom X’s cold precision to Ivy League dryness without a false note. I could never have imagined that the same Professor West could say of President Obama “He has a certain rootlessness, a deracination”.

    “He feels most comfortable with upper middle-class white and Jewish men who consider themselves very smart, very savvy and very effective in getting what they want.”

    According to West, all this explained why the feckless Obama had not picked someone like Paul Krugman as his economic adviser (irony died again). West then went on tour with a Wells-Fargo pitchman named Tavis Smiley to rally the masses and attack Obama. West’s Princeton colleague, the eminent liberal scholar Professor Sean Wilentz had exactly the opposite problem, accusing then Candidate Obama of, well, read it:

    Before the South Carolina, “Potomac” and Mississippi primaries, Obama cheerfully lifted the “hoodwinked, bamboozled” rant from the Spike Lee film Malcolm X, in order to convey to black voters that, whatever he might say about a “post-racial” campaign, racial solidarity against white traducers was crucial to his effort.

    Hide the white wimmin! This is from the author of “Against Exceptionalism: Class Consciousness and the American Labor Movement” no less.

    Then we were informed by left-progressive Bob Scheer, writing in the hallowed pages of The Nation that Bircher Congressman Ron Paul, despite some regrettable “decades old” racist comments merited being treated

    as a profound and principled contributor to a much-needed national debate on the limits of federal power

    This is the same Ron Paul who proposed to give George W. Bush authority to charter privateers to roam the world after 9/11, the same one who told his gullible newsletter readers to prepare for race war against “fleet footed black thugs”(regrettably, I suppose) and so on. But Scheer is quick to contrast the principled Paul with that no good Obama.

    Professor Michael Hudson, who I guess would call himself a Trotskyiteexplainedin Trouthout in 2012:

    If capitalism worked 30 years ago with higher taxation, with strong labor power, with a good property tax, and with affordable houses, it can work again.

    Thirty years from 2012 takes us to the glorious age of Ronald Reagan and Margret Thatcher. Capitalism was cool then, man, before it sold out. Hudson goes on with a deep Marxist analysis of class structure as follows:

    The banks have no power at all. The problem is the corruption of the politicians, who are just demagogues pretending to oppose the banks while actually being in their pocket.

    Poor Trotsky. Here is a supposed disciple writing in the foremost capitalist country after a long period of growth of the financial sector that “the banks have no power”. And we are back to that Barack Obama again, just so busy doing bad things. He could have just shut down banks, even when George Bush was in office (Hudson is generally not too precise about chronology), but he was too corrupt to bring Capitalism back to the Edenic Reagan Era. This is pretty typical but I want to take a moment to note just how far away such an argument is from what was called “left wing” even 20 years ago. There used to be all this stuff about class, gender, power structures,imperialism and so on. A Marxist historian is yelling, “banks have no power”, another Marxist tells us the President is “deracinated”, a Bircher is extolled as great and principled critic by a left-liberal, a dean of liberal history is having a Buckley-esque fainting spell about the ominous voodoo drumming out in the cane field -the whole spectrum of the American Left apparently had a breakdown when Barack Obama rose to power. And any dissent from this bizarre riot of peevishness earns bitter accusations of Obomabotism, neoliberalism, or worse (if there is such a thing).

    Chris Hedges is ready to carry a sign and walk about Union Square park -at least after his vacation in Maine.

    Our political leaders, Democrat and Republican, are complicit in our demise. Our political system, like that in the declining days of ancient Rome, is one of legalized bribery. Politicians, including Mitt Romney and Barack Obama, serve the demented ends of corporations that will, until the final flicker of life, attempt to profit from our death spiral. Civil disobedience, including the recent decision by Greenpeace activists to chain themselves to a Gazprom supply vessel and obstruct a Russian oil rig, is the only meaningful form of resistance. Voting is useless. [Hedges]

    And there is a message. Right wing billionaires invested a fortune in voter suppression because “voting is useless”. Of course. And then there’s Matt Stoller whose now defunct site OpenLeft was simply packed with predictions before the 2008 election that Barack Obama was a stealth Reaganite and empty suit taking advantage of the naive hopes of American white progressives and the tribal loyalty of those ignorant blacks, and who now agrees with Scheer that only One Man Has Moral Authority:


    What happened to the American left? I think there are four parts to the answer.

    One. Look at how leftists earn a living. Today’s left is primarily made up of academics, Non-Profit “thinkers”, and media figures all of whom earn their living by producing entertainment of a particular kind – generally outrage based entertainment. That is, “leftism” has been turned into a commercial process in which money and status are obtained by producing leftist material that is marketable product for the corporate media and institutional networks of foundations and universities. Barack Obama’s Presidency calls into question the roles of some of these outrage producers as representatives of the working class or the oppressed community. For example, while Barack Obama is President, West and Smiley’s brand identities as spokesmen for Black America are a lot weaker.

    Two. Racial anxiety: white men find themselves suddenly “robbed of the spotlight”[1]. For example, it is sadly clear that a large part of the white left has race based delusions about how much smarter they are than Barack Obama. There have been thousands of “critiques” in which some childishly over-simplified take on Keynes or pathetically uninformed theory about negotiation or political tactics is proudly trotted out as if the President needed to be tutored on elementary matters by a patient, if exasperated, benefactor. Not that Obama was wrong, but as if this eloquent and deft politician had somehow stumbled his way to the summit of power without being able to understand something as simple as the motivations of his opponents. It’s not surprising that the most coherent “criticism from the left” of the Obama administration has come from Barbara Lee and from Angela Davis. But it seems that many white male leftists find the right wing theory that Obama is a dim empty suit beneficiary of affirmative action irresistible. Through the early part of the first term it was easy to find “left” explanations that Rahm Emmanuel was the real brains behind the administration (and how’s that for a right wing archetypical story?). Here’s a great example of absurd condescension from Bob Kuttner

    Now, if you are inclined to cut Obama a lot of slack, you might blame the speechwriters and the likelihood that different handlers prepped him for the Friday press conference. But that alibi doesn’t persuade. If the president had a clear inner compass, he’d notice the disjuncture and would not contradict himself so blatantly within the space of 24 hours

    Three. The simultaneous defeat and victory of the socialist project. For much of the 20th century the left’s idea of social justice was tied to advocacy of state ownership of much of the economy. By now, every advanced nation has extensive government management of the so-called private sector and so-called “free market” fundamentalists advocate far reaching powers for central banks or “privatization”that involves greater public payment for services from private companies and so on. Nobody really advocates a minimal state, they simply fight over who gets to control it and what objectives it should have. Try this one on your typical conservative: the government should not be evaluating the utility of different means of earning money, so it should stop taxing capital gains at a special low rate or giving special tax breaks to oil companies. Ha ha! And try to find someone “on the left” who seriously advocates the elimination of markets. The great collision between socialism and capitalism has sunk both boats and left a number of nostalgics grimly hanging on to ideological wreckage from which they try to rebuild certainties that are lost forever. However, acknowledging this is a problem – see “one” above.

    Fourth and finally (phew). The political record of the US left over the last 3 or 4 decades has been a series of defeats. This record produced three responses:giving up, closing the wagons, and stepping away. The Marxist philosopher Žižek asked the key question:

    So what should, say, the US Democrats do? Stop competing for state power and withdraw to the interstices of the state, leaving state power to the Republicans and start a campaign of anarchic resistance to it?

    The remnant US left closed the wagons and answered “But of course. It would be immoral as well as inconvenient to leave our comfortable indignation behind and try to actually change the world”. And once this answer was given, hostility to those who actually do change the world was inevitable. Those of us who found symbolic victories, “making a statement”, venting, and so on unsatisfying stepped away and searched for a method that could actually produce wins. Some of us have found at least the first parts of such a method in what Barack Obama has advocated and accomplished.

  7. rikyrah says:


    this has been a fabulous and informative series.

  8. Andrew Myrick

    Andrew Myrick

    Andrew J. Myrick (May 28, 1832 – August 18, 1862), was a trader with an Indian wife who operated a store in southwest Minnesota near the Minnesota River in the late part of his life.

    Myrick had stores at the Yellow Medicine and Redwood Agencies. When a group of Dakota Indians appeared at the Yellow Medicine Agency and started to take the food in the warehouse that was promised through annuity payments on August 4th, 1862, Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith issued some of the food but told the Dakota the rest would have to wait until the money owed to them arrived. Payments to the Dakota Indians had not been made, partly because of delays caused by the American Civil War and possibly because Mary Todd Lincoln had over spent decorating and cleaning the Whitehouse, it is known that she spent the entire four year budget allocated by Congress in a matter of months and she tried to cover it up, but when Lincoln found out he was livid and immediately dispatched Congress to quietly approve two appropriations to pay her bills and the money had to come from somewhere.[1] After the decision to wait to issue more of the annuity food was made by Galbraith, he turned to the store owners and workers and asked them what they were intending to do. Myrick had been informed that the “traders paper” that allowed the traders to be paid right from the annuity allotments for what they were owed on credit was not going to be allowed this time,so he responded that they would give no more credit at the stores and “So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry let them eat grass or their own dung.”[2] He made this retort while involved in a confrontation between Dakota tribesmen, the United States government, and other traders. His comment is considered an inciting factor in the Sioux Uprising that began shortly thereafter.

  9. Dakota War of 1862

    By 1862, shortly after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the federal payment was late. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Santee and one trader, Andrew Myrick, went so far as to say, “If they’re hungry, let them eat grass.”[14] On August 17, 1862 the Dakota War began when a few Santee men murdered a white farmer and most of his family. They inspired further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River. The Santee attacked the trading post. Later settlers found Myrick among the dead with his mouth stuffed full of grass.

    Karma! When evil gets to rockin; karma comes a knockin



    Gall (c. 1840–1894) Lakota Phizí,[1] (gall bladder)[2] was a battle leader of the Hunkpapa Lakota in the long war against the United States. He was one of the commanders in the Battle of Little Bighorn.

    Born in present-day South Dakota around 1840, Gall was said to receive his nickname after eating the gall of an animal killed by a neighbor.[3] He grew to be a giant of a man weighing close to 300 pounds.

    He was recognized as an accomplished warrior during his late teens and became a war chief in his twenties.[4] Leading the Lakota in their long war against the United States, he served with Sitting Bull during several battles, including the famous Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876.

    Since the early 1980s, archaeological researchers conducted battlefield excavations after a major grass fire. Historians have been studying accounts by participating Indians and tribal oral histories. Based on these elements, contemporary reassessment of the Battle of Little Bighorn has given Gall greater credit for several crucial tactical decisions that contributed to the Sioux and Cheyenne’s overpowering defeat of the five companies of cavalry led by Custer of the 7th Cavalry.

  11. Alleged photo of Crazy Horse

    Crazy Horse.

    Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota Orthography,[2] IPA:tχaʃʊ̃kɛ witkɔ), literally “His-Horse-Is-Crazy” or “His-Horse-Is-Spirited”;[3] ca. 1840 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the U.S. Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of the Lakota people, including leading a war party to victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.

    Crazy Horse quote:

    We had buffalo for food, and their hides for clothing and for our tepees. We preferred hunting to a life of idleness on the reservation, where we were driven against our will. At times we did not get enough to eat and we were not allowed to leave the reservation to hunt. We preferred our own way of living. We were no expense to the government. All we wanted was peace and to be left alone.

    Soldiers were sent out in the winter, who destroyed our villages. Then “Long Hair” (Custer) came in the same way. They say we massacred him, but he would have done the same to us has we not defended ourselves and fought to the last. Our first impulse was to escape with our squaws and papooses, but we were so hemmed in that we had to fight.

  12. Ametia says:

    Lawmaker Makes Lewd Remark to Teenage Girl

    Connecticut state Rep. Ernest Hewett (D) made an inappropriate remark to a 17 year old girl testifying about a program that helped her overcome her shyness and get over her fear of snakes, the New London Day reports.

    Said the girl: “I am usually a very shy person, and now I am more outgoing. I was able to teach those children about certain things like snakes that we have and the turtles that we have… I want to do something toward that, working with children when I get older.”

    According to an audiotape of the hearing, Hewett replied: “If you’re bashful I got a snake sitting under my desk here.”

    Here’s the audio:

  13. Rep. Jim Clyburn Hammers Justice Scalia As ‘White And Proud’

    On Friday the Huffington Post interviewed Rep. Jim Clyburn on the latest Supreme Court’s hearing on the Voting Rights Act and he had some harsh words for conservative Justice Antonin Scalia saying that his criticism of the landmark civil rights legislation is rooted in the fact that he is “white and proud.”

    During last week’s hearings Scalia said that the 1965 legislation created a “racial entitlement” that is very difficult to get out through “the normal political process.”

    Clyburn compared these remarks to what he experienced growing up in South Carolina, saying that he developed an immunity to racist remarks but notes their impact is still felt in efforts he thinks are attempts to curtail the voting rights of minorities. Clyburn told HuffPo that the Scalia’s rhetoric can be found in the recent changes to state voting laws around the country before the 2012 election.
    The KKK is wearing a black robe and sitting on the Supreme Court of the United States.

    The KKK is alive and well in DC and wearing a black robe

  14. Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull Quotes:

    I am here by the will of the Great Spirit, and by his will I am chief.

    What white man can say I never stole his land or a penny of his money? Yet they say that I am a thief.

    Is it wrong for me to love my own? Is it wicked for me because my skin is red? Because I am Sioux? Because I was born where my father lived? Because I would die for my people and my country?

    God made me an Indian.

    If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man, he would have made me so in the first place.

    • After participating in the Sun Dance Ceremony, Sitting Bull had a vision in which he saw his people victorious over the white soldiers who had been sent to protect the gold prospectors. Just weeks later, General George Armstrong Custer and a regiment of the seventh cavalry attacked the seven bands of the Lakota Nation along with several families of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The attack was clearly in violation of their treaty. Precisely as Sitting Bull had seen in his vision, every white soldier was killed that day at Big Horn along with a few Native Americans.

    • Ametia says:

      Sitting Bull didn’t take any BULL from YT.

  15. Ametia says:

    Public Health Advocate and actress Ashley Judd spoke about the topic of women’s health. Among the topics she addressed were her early interest in public health issues, violence against women, global poverty, and ..


  16. Chief Plenty Coups

    “Education is your greatest weapon. With education you are the white man’s equal, without education you are his victim and so shall remain all of your lives.”

  17. ** Native American * Old pictures **** memories

    Apache , Bear claw , Buffalo, Blackfoot, Bull Arapaho , the chiefs ,Cheyenne , Dakota ,hopi brave,Indian warriors,Indian delegation,Indian woman and child , Kiowa , Lakota , Proud , Red cloud , Sioux ,Tomahawk ,Taos indian , geronimo .**ALL NATIONS **

  18. Ametia says:


    Imagine a plot to undermine the government of the United States, to destroy much of its capacity to do the public’s business, and to sow distrust among the population.

    Imagine further that the plotters infiltrate Congress and state governments, reshape their districts to give them disproportionate influence in Washington, and use the media to spread big lies about the government.

    Finally, imagine they not only paralyze the government but are on the verge of dismantling pieces of it.Far-fetched? Perhaps. But take a look at what’s been happening in Washington and many state capitals since Tea Party fanatics gained effective control of the Republican Party, and you’d be forgiven if you see parallels.

    Tea Party Republicans are crowing about the “sequestration” cuts beginning today (Friday). “This will be the first significant tea party victory in that we got what we set out to do in changing Washington,” says Rep. Tim Huelskamp (Kan.), a Tea Partier who was first elected in 2010.

    Sequestration is only the start. What they set out to do was not simply change Washington but eviscerate the U.S. government — “drown it in the bathtub,” in the words of their guru Grover Norquist – slashing Social Security and Medicare, ending worker protections we’ve had since the 1930s, eroding civil rights and voting rights, terminating programs that have helped the poor for generations, and making it impossible for the government to invest in our future.

    – See more at:

  19. Shady_Grady says:

    This was very useful. Thx.

  20. Losses

    Another account, from Noah Armstrong, recalled the precarious relationship between U.S. soldiers and Native American hunters:

    [W]e came upon a smouldering [sic] campfire and the remains of a buffalo . . . . [and] a row of Indians going down the path single file. We opened fire as we were accustomed to doing and killed two of the Indians . . . . [and] chased them right on into a white camp and found to our dismay that we had been chasing Government Indians . . . sent out with United State Officers . . . to show them how to hunt buffalo. We . . . [had] to go into court over killing the Indians, but it was settled in our favor.

    The killing of buffalo reduced the number of resources available to independent Native Americans. For many Native Americans, the federal government’s reservation system became the only means for survival.

    President Grover Cleveland noted the national obligation in his first inaugural address in 1885: “The conscience of the people demands that the Indians within our boundaries shall be fairly and honestly treated as wards of the Government and their education and civilization promoted with a view to their ultimate citizenship . . .” Citizenship, however, remained almost sixty years away.

    In the meantime, the Dawes Act of 1887 dissolved many Indian reservations. An 1888 report from the Indian Rights Association, The Condition of Affairs in Indian Territory and California, questioned America’s treatment of Native Americans: “The whole management of Indians has been abnormal . . . Everything is controlled by arbitrary laws and regulations, and not by moral, social, or economic principles.” The report concluded that opening Oklahoma up to settlers and moving Native Americans farther west “would be unjust, cruel and disastrous.”

    Nevertheless, the federal government opened Oklahoma’s unoccupied lands to white settlers in 1889. Four years later, the government purchased more than 6 million acres from tribes to pave the way for the Oklahoma land rush.

    An audio recording of an interview with an Oklahoma settler includes a description of the violence that occurred between whites and Native Americans in the years before statehood.

    • The hard ugly truth: White men are OPPRESSORS. The white man has oppressed Native Americans, African Americans, Muslims all out of greed. They have also caused white women to suffer. They stir up fear, strife, hatred and resentment in order to further their agenda.


  21. Disaster at Wounded Knee

    Such violent conflicts were common throughout many territories, and it was not long before the last official military action against Native Americans took place on December 29, 1890. Government officials banned a growing religion known as the Ghost Dance on a South Dakota reservation that month.

    As part of the crackdown against the Ghost Dance, the army arrested Chief Big Foot and his Lakota tribesmen and confined them to a camp near Wounded Knee Creek. The day after the arrest, the military attempted to recover the prisoner’s weapons. A gun was accidentally discharged and soldiers opened fire. When the shooting stopped, more than 300 Lakota Indians were dead.

    The massacre exemplified a culture at war with the Native Americans on various fronts. Books such as Recollections of a Virginian in the Mexican, Indian, and Civil Wars (1894) describes the physical and psychological warfare involved in fighting Native Americans in the territories:

    He told me he hanged all of his prisoners, because the Indians had a great and superstitious horror of hanging; for they believe that no man’s soul will be received into the happy hunting grounds that does not pass through the throat, which is impossible when that route is closed by a rope; it must seek another road of exit, and all such souls are rejected at the gates of Paradise. He said a fine moral effect was produced upon the Indians by this method of execution.

    • Custer’s Last Stand … Aftermath

      Custer didn’t deal with military victories and moral failures for long. In 1876, he and his 264 men died in an attack on Sioux and Cheyenne warriors during the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Black Hills, Montana.

      The federal government opened Black Hills to gold mining in 1875 but Native Americans refused to leave the area because of its religious significance. As the U.S. military gathered to forcibly relocate the warriors, Custer’s troops disregarded orders and attacked a village.

      George Flanders was a soldier in a group arriving in Black Hills on June 26, 1876, a day after Custer’s charge. Flanders buried his comrades that day and, years later, he heard an account of Custer’s battlefield actions. In the Federal Writers’ Project essay, George L. Flanders, he recounted the Cheyenne Indian tale that “Custer had received a wound in the hip and was unable to get up, but continued shooting until he had used all except one of his cartridges and with that last bullet shot himself.”

      Custer’s death galvanized the military. In subsequent months, they tracked down Sioux and Cheyenne warriors and forced them onto reservations.

      Military pursuit wasn’t the only hunt of concern to Native Americans. Buffalo was a prime resource for its meat and hide. The millions of animals roaming the plains in the 1860s virtually disappeared within two decades as hunters from across the United States and abroad drove the herds to near extinction.

      The Federal Writers’ Project’s “History of a Buffalo Hunter” described an 1877 horseback excursion that continued “until they had killed enough buffaloes to fill fifty carts with the meat.”

      • George L. Flanders, he recounted the Cheyenne Indian tale that “Custer had received a wound in the hip and was unable to get up, but continued shooting until he had used all except one of his cartridges and with that last bullet shot himself.”

        What are your thoughts, 3Chics? This sounds like the Jessica Lynch story to me. Just saying..

        Uh uh uh…trying to make Custer a hero. Custer got routed! The savages took revenge at Wounded Knee by slaughtering women, children and old people.

        They killed off their main food source, starved many to death, stole their land and almost annihilated them out of greed. Pray tell? Who is the mofo savage here?

      • Ametia says:

        BARBARIANS! Jessica would not let them use her in their LIES.

  22. Good morning, everyone!

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