Thursday Open Thread | Disco Week: The Bee Gees


Can’t do a Disco Week without The Bee Gees.


The Bee Gees were a pop music group that was founded in 1958. The group’s line-up consisted of brothers Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb. The trio were successful for most of their decades of recording music, but they had two distinct periods of exceptional success: as a rock act in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and as prominent performers of the disco music era in the late 1970s. The group sang recognisable three-part tight harmonies; Robin’s clear vibrato lead vocals were a hallmark of their earlier hits, while Barry’s R&B falsetto became their signature sound during the late 1970s and 1980s. They wrote all of their own hits, as well as writing and producing several major hits for other artists.

Born on the Isle of Man to English parents, the Gibb brothers lived in Chorlton, Manchester, England, until the late 1950s. The family then moved to Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, where the brothers began their music careers.[2] After achieving their first chart success in Australia with “Spicks and Specks” (their 12th single), they returned to the United Kingdom in January 1967 where producer Robert Stigwood began promoting them to a worldwide audience.

The Bee Gees’ career record sales total more than 220 million[3] ranking them among the best-selling music artists of all time. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997;[4] the presenter of the award to “Britain’s first family of harmony” was Brian Wilson, historical leader of the Beach Boys, a “family act” also featuring three harmonising brothers.[5] The Bee Gees’ Hall of Fame citation says “Only Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Michael Jackson, Garth Brooks and Paul McCartney have outsold the Bee Gees.”[6]

Following Maurice’s death in January 2003, Barry and Robin retired the group’s name after 45 years of activity. In 2009 Robin announced that he and Barry had agreed that the Bee Gees would re-form and perform again.[7] Robin died in May 2012 after a prolonged struggle with cancer.



Saturday Night Fever 30th Anniversary Collector's Edition DVD

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99 Responses to Thursday Open Thread | Disco Week: The Bee Gees

  1. Ametia says:

    Rikyrah, please check your EMAIL.

  2. rikyrah says:

    BET Renews ‘The Game,’ ‘Being Mary Jane,’ ‘Real Husbands’; Adds ‘Book of Negroes’ Mini

    The Viacom-owned cable network presented its new lineup Thursday, which includes new series “Gone Gospel,” “Got Game” and a slate of movies and specials as well as its first scripted miniseries.

    BET presented its upcoming slate to Madison Avenue ad buyers Thursday featuring renewals for current series as well as the addition of new shows and movies/specials.

    Outkast to Headline 2014 BET Experience in Los Angeles

    Keke Palmer, Judge Greg Mathis Team for BET Daily Talk Show

    ‘Single Ladies’ Revived at BET’s Centric
    Returning for additional seasons are drama Being Mary Jane (season two), faux reality show Real Husbands of Hollywood (season three), comedy The Game (season eight) and video countdown series 106 & Park.

    PHOTOS: Broadcast TV’s Returning Shows 2014-15
    Also joining the No. 1 network for African-Americans are Diggy Simmons comedy The Start Up from The Game’s Mara Brock Akil and Salim Akil; music competition series Gone Gospel; and dating show Got Game.

    The network also introduced its first scripted miniseries, greenlighting The Book of Negroes. The six-part series stars Cuba Gooding Jr., Louis Gossett Jr. and Aunjanue Ellis. It’s being co-produced by Entertainment One and the CBC and centers on Aminata Diallo’s capture in Africa, enslavement in America and emancipation in England. The series is described as a historical drama based on the Commonwealth Prize-winning novel by Lawrence Hill.

    Here’s a look at the new series as well as movies/specials:

    New programming

    In The Start Up, hip-hop prince Diggy Simmons makes his scripted series debut as Blake Monroe, founder of, an entertainment and lifestyle blog. The Start Up hones in on what it means to be young, gifted and digital, as Blake and his friends strategize for fame and financing while they navigate the freedoms and pressures of adulthood. Also stars Teyana Taylor, Bria Murphy, Allen Maldonado, Chris Brew and Stephanie Charles. From EPs Mara Brock Akil, Salim Akil, Kenya Barris, James DuBose, Kevin Liles and Laurie Dobbins.

    Music artists outside of the gospel genre in search of their next chapter and verse share a house, compete in weekly challenges and embark on a holistic journey to rebuild their careers. Under the mentorship of star-making songwriters, producers and life coaches, the artists will write an inspirational anthem on their road to transforming their lives. There will be egos. There will be tribulations. And there will be a dramatic, victorious conclusion like nothing seen before on BET. Hosted by Kirk Franklin (Sunday Best) and exec produced by Marilyn Gill and Kirk Franklin.

    When eligible men and women have to woo a new prospect without relying on their great looks, killer body or fashion sense, it all comes down to whether they’ve Got Game? BET gives the dating show a cliffhanger with each episode as singles undergo wild transformations, complete with costumes and movie make-up before their big dates. Will their charm shine through? Or will it be game over? Hosted by Donnivin Jordan.


    NAACP Image Award-winning director Regina King (Southland) steps behind the camera to bring ReShonda Tate Billingsley’s inspirational best-seller to the screen. Enter the world of Rachel Jackson, the preacher’s daughter who surmounts incredible odds to reconcile with the father she disappointed. Stars Naturi Naughton, Steve Harris, Lela Rochon Fuqua, Hosea Chanchez and Collins Pennie. Produced by Queen Latifah, Shakim Compere, Shelby Stone and King. Exec produced by Reina King and TD Jakes.

    From veteran executive producer/director Debbie Allen comes a new vision for a holiday classic. A young girl’s dream comes to life when her Christmas gift shows her wondrous new worlds where original music and dance warm hearts, just like hot chocolate. Stars Raven-Symoné and Tichina Arnold.

  3. rikyrah says:

    The GOP position on immigration: Get out

    By Greg Sargent
    April 24 at 3:24 pm

    With Obama considering whether to act to ease deportations, nearly two dozen Republican Senators today fired off a letter putting him on notice: Any such move would constitute an abdication of the responsibility to secure the border, an abandonment of the rule of law, and a threat to the country’s constitutional order.

    This is an occasion to explain what’s really going on with deportations — a topic that has engendered much confusion — and to lay out what the de facto position of many GOP lawmakers in this debate really is. That position is this: The only policy response we can support to address the 11 million is to deport as many people from the interior as possible, regardless of whether they are minor offenders with families and lives in the United States.

    This entails going down a bit of a rabbit hole, but bear with me.

    The GOP Senators’ case in the letter is that deportations are already down – Obama is already failing to enforce the law — and further changes would make that worse. “Clearly, the urgent task facing your administration is to improve immigration enforcement, not to look for new ways to weaken it,” they write. Similarly, John Boehner suggests Republicans are hard pressed to act on immigration because Obama already can’t be trusted, and unilateral action will exacerbate mistrust.

    The Senators cite a recent L.A. Times story — hailed by the right — that notes: “Expulsions of people who are settled and working in the United States have fallen steadily since his first year in office, and are down more than 40% since 2009.”

    The Times story is correct. But Republicans are seizing on it in a selective way. The cited stat concerns “interior removals,” i.e., people who are settled and working here. That does not include “border removals,” i.e., people deported after getting caught crossing. Here, based on Department of Homeland Security data, is what has happened since 2008 in both categories:

  4. rikyrah says:

    Cliven Bundy and the perils of identity politics

    By Paul Waldman
    April 24 at 11:57 am

    Is anyone surprised that Cliven Bundy, the Nevada rancher who has become a Fox News hero because of his stand-off with the Bureau of Land Management, turns out to be a stone-cold racist? Not the kind where we might disagree about whether he’s actually a racist, but a lazy-blacks-had-it-better-when-they-were-slaves kind of racist. Conservatives may be wondering how they keep falling in with these kind of people.
    I’ll solve that mystery in a moment, but in case you don’t have access to the New York Times, reporter Adam Nagourney went to one of Bundy’s daily (and now lightly attended) press conferences and received some wisdom from Mr. Bundy:

    Bundy apparently did not appreciate the irony of this argument coming from a guy who has become famous because he refuses to pay for a government benefit he’s getting. Some of Bundy’s Republican supporters, like Senators Rand Paul and Dean Heller, immediately released statements condemning Bundy’s comments, and you can bet that Bundy will soon disappear from Fox News, where over the last few weeks he’s had so much air time on so many different programs that he could almost demand that Roger Ailes pay him a salary.

    It should be said that smart conservatives knew from the beginning that Bundy’s cause was not one they ought to be embracing, and many kept their distance. The fundamental fact of the case is that Bundy was stealing from the federal government. Whether you think the government shouldn’t own so much land in Nevada, or whether you think grazing fees are unfair, you can’t just decide, as Bundy did, that you’ll send your cattle on to government land to graze, then refuse to pay the fees. That’s what Bundy has been doing for a couple of decades, because, as he said in another interview, “I don’t recognize the United States government as even existing.”

  5. rikyrah says:

    A fatal wait: Veterans languish and die on a VA hospital’s secret list

    By Scott Bronstein and Drew Griffin, CNN Investigations
    updated 9:15 AM EDT, Thu April 24, 2014

    At least 40 U.S. veterans died waiting for appointments at the Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care system, many of whom were placed on a secret waiting list.

    The secret list was part of an elaborate scheme designed by Veterans Affairs managers in Phoenix who were trying to hide that 1,400 to 1,600 sick veterans were forced to wait months to see a doctor, according to a recently retired top VA doctor and several high-level sources.

    For six months, CNN has been reporting on extended delays in health care appointments suffered by veterans across the country and who died while waiting for appointments and care. But the new revelations about the Phoenix VA are perhaps the most disturbing and striking to come to light thus far.

    Internal e-mails obtained by CNN show that top management at the VA hospital in Arizona knew about the practice and even defended it.

    Dr. Sam Foote just retired after spending 24 years with the VA system in Phoenix. The veteran doctor told CNN in an exclusive interview that the Phoenix VA works off two lists for patient appointments:

    There’s an “official” list that’s shared with officials in Washington and shows the VA has been providing timely appointments, which Foote calls a sham list. And then there’s the real list that’s hidden from outsiders, where wait times can last more than a year.

  6. rikyrah says:

    Study: Reviewers Find More Errors In Your Writing If They Think You’re Black
    April 24, 2014

    A new study by Nextions reveals that reviewers of a legal brief were likely to find more errors once they learned that the author was Black.

    Based on findings from a previous study that revealed supervising lawyers are more likely than not to perceive African-American writers as having subpar writing skills when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, the researchers attempted to confirm if they would unfairly evaluate legal writing by Black lawyers.

    The results were most unsurprising.

  7. Back from the doc. He sent me to the hospital for X-Rays. I won’t know the results until tomorrow. Pray for me!

  8. rikyrah says:

    I’ve been telling y’all: don’t shyt happen in Illinois without the hand of Illinois Speaker of the House Massa Michael Madigan in it.


    Controversy erupts over $100 mil. for Obama library
    By LYNN SWEET Washington Bureau Chief April 21, 2014 11:00PM

    WASHINGTON — A move by Illinois House Speaker Michael Madigan to muscle through a measure to appropriate $100 million from the cash-strapped state to help finance the construction of President Barack Obama’s presidential library and museum in Chicago is erupting into a controversy.

    The backlash is strong enough that a committee vote Madigan engineered last Thursday in Chicago to advance the $100 million plan to the House floor now will be retaken in Springfield on April 30.

    And this time, state GOP House members, now paying attention — and being stung by Madigan’s legislative sleight-of-hand — will attend the hearing.

    The competition for the Obama facility had been humming along, hullabaloo-free, with the Chicago-based Barack Obama Presidential Foundation, acting on behalf of the president and first lady Michelle, preparing to sift through first-round bids due on June 16.

    Then, out of the blue, Madigan proposed the unsolicited, giant, State of Illinois sweetener to build the case for the Obama library to be built in Chicago even as the state is looking for cash to pay billions of dollars in bills and pensions.

  9. rikyrah says:

    Lost story of Vivian Maier’s photos

    By LAURA WASHINGTON April 19, 2014 6:28PM
    Updated: April 21, 2014 2:19AM

    The documentary “Finding Vivian Maier” suggests there are many fascinating stories percolating just under the surface of ordinary life. You just have to look. Vivian Maier looked.

    The film, now showing in Chicago, tells the story of a nanny who lived and worked on Chicago’s suburban North Shore. In her spare time, she doubled as an uber-talented photographer.

    The film is graced with the sensational products of Maier’s unlikely avocation. The narrator, filmmaker/photographer John Maloof, opens in 2007 as Maloof peruses film negatives stored in a cardboard box that he bought at an auction. The box was labeled, “Vivian Maier.” The images inside were astounding, and surely, Maloof thought, this talent must be known.

    He Googles her name. Nothing comes up.

    So Maloof set off on a riveting search to discover the life behind the eye of the secretive and seductive photographer. Maloof, who co-directed the film, interviewed dozens of people who knew Maier from the 1950s until 2009, when she died at 83, alone and destitute.

    In her spare time, the nanny produced 100,000 images that she took during a half century, and stashed the negatives, prints and films in boxes, trunks and storage lockers.

    Maier, he learns, was, as Winston Churchill once proclaimed of Russia, “a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.”

    Now, Maloof is building an archive of her work, which has been embraced and shown worldwide. Her talent has made her an international celebrity.

  10. rikyrah says:

    Obama’s Getting A Chicago High School Named After Him

    The Huffington Post | by Joseph Erbentraut
    Posted: 04/24/2014 3:24 pm EDT Updated: 04/24/2014 3:59 pm EDT

    President Barack Obama will have a new selective enrollment Chicago public high school named after him, his former chief of staff and Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel announced Thursday afternoon.

    Barack Obama College Preparatory High School, Emanuel says, will be built on the city’s Near North Side using $60 million in tax-increment financing funds, the Chicago Sun-Times’ Fran Spielman and Lauren Fitzpatrick reported. The school will open in the fall of 2017 with a freshman class of 300 students and will ultimately serve 1,200 students, the mayor said.

    The school will be located behind Skinner North Classical School on Chicago Park District property and will help meet what CPS CEO Barbara Byrd-Bennett described as a high demand for more of the highly competitive selective enrollment schools in the district, according to WBEZ. The district currently has just 10 citywide and many students who qualify for admission are turned away.

    “We must seize every opportunity to ensure our students receive a world-class, 21st century education and that they are able to take advantage of the academic opportunities they have earned,” Emanuel said in a statement. “Year after year, too many of our students who have put in years of hard work are turned away because as a city we haven’t had the capacity to meet their capability and this important investment will help us fix that.”

  11. rikyrah says:

    Goldie Taylor @goldietaylor
    If this man say neeegrah one more dang time…

    3:20 PM – 24 Apr 2014

  12. rikyrah says:

    Innocent pizza delivery man shot at 14 times by police

    Julianne Cassidy

    CREATED 9:35 AM
    Pizza delivery man Philippe Holland, 20, was shot and critically wounded in Upper Darby, Pa., by two plainclothes police officers. Holland’s Ford Taurus was hit 14 times.

    “Holland was struck at least three times, in his neck, a leg, and his head. He was in critical but stable condition late Wednesday at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania,” reports The Inquirer. “The bullet that struck him in the head has damaged his eyesight, though it was unclear whether the damage is permanent, a police source said.”

    Holland was reported as having been in the location to deliver a cheeseburger deluxe, so he didn’t carry his Slices & More pizza delivery bag. Two policeman were in the area to respond to a report of guns fired and targeted Holland instead.

    According to The Inquirer, “Until we talk to him we won’t have all the answers, but he may have thought he was being robbed,” Philadelphia Police Commissioner Charles H. Ramsey says. “Although the officers said they announced that they were officers, in an area like that, everyone was hypervigilant – both the officers and the person who was shot – and it turned out not to be a good result.”

    “The department’s use-of-force guidelines dictate that officers ‘shall not discharge their firearms at or from a moving vehicle unless deadly physical force is being used against the police officer or another person present, by means other than the moving vehicle,'” further reports The Inquirer.

    • Ametia says:

      14 effing times, FOURTEEN! Where did these police officers think they where? In Iraq?


      “Although the officers said they announced that they were officers, in an area like that, everyone was hypervigilant – both the officers and the person who was shot – and it turned out not to be a good result.”

  13. rikyrah says:

    RHOA Husband Apollo Nida’s co-conspirator sentenced five-plus years for bank fraud, ID theft
    Posted: 2:54 pm Thursday, April 24th, 2014

    The heat is on Apollo Nida, the husband of “Real Housewives of Atlanta” cast member Phaedra Parks.

    In U.S. District Court Wednesday, Nida’s co-conspirator Gayla St. Julien pled guilty to conspiracy to commit mail, wire and bank fraud and aggravated identity theft, resulting in a 61-month prison sentence.

    St. Julien worked with Nida for four years in his scheme from 2009 until 2013. The federal government filed a complaint charging him of the same two charges.

    During her time working with Nida, she opened several fake bank accounts to launder money obtained fraudulently, the complaint alleged. A sampling of accounts listed in the complaint totaled about $3 million.

    St. Julien, “described herself as NIDA’s ‘right hand b****’ in executing the legwork of his fraud schemes,” wrote Alexandre Herrera, a U.S. Secret Service Agent in the Counterfeit and U.S. Treasury Check Squad. She told Herrara she received “scraps” compared to how much Nida pocketed.

    Nida is still in talks with the feds for a plea deal.

  14. rikyrah says:

    Conservatives Plot To Overthrow Obama and Democrats and Appoint a Permanent GOP Majority

    By: Rmuse
    Thursday, April, 24th, 2014, 11:19 am

    Consequences are the effects, results, or outcomes of something occurring. Consequences is a word Americans are going to hear often over the next eight or nine months when politicians are going to repeat ad nauseum that “elections have consequences.” Prior to the 2008 General Election, the consequences of elections meant the victors began making plans to implement their campaign promises; except after the 2010 midterms when instead of creating jobs like they pledged to win control of the House, Republicans immediately embarked on a job-killing spree they have continued relentlessly. Before the 2008 election, the losers crawled back home, licked their wounded pride, and emerged to work with the victors for the good of the country and its people. After 2008, everything changed in the minds of the vanquished and the consequence of the general election was a concerted effort to punish the voters for electing an African American man as President that escalated into a full-on conservative, religious right, and Republican assault on both the people and the government.

    It is glaringly apparent that Republicans and conservatives were deluded by Karl Rove’s claim in the middle of the first decade of this century that America would be ruled by “a permanent Republican majority” in perpetuity. The stunning realization that Rove was in error sent conservatives blinded by their racial animus toward Barack Obama into losing what little sense of reason they possessed to actively finish what they started with 2008s Great Recession and destroy the economy, kill jobs, and take everything from the American people. That economic terrorism was bad enough coming from Republicans in Congress, but conservatives not in Congress have evolved from disgruntled losers shortly after the 2008 election into a concerted movement determined to overthrow the United States government; something establishment Republicans are complicit in.

    After seeing and hearing five years of propaganda accusing President Obama of everything from tyranny, sedition, treason, shredding the Constitution, murdering millions of babies, murdering four Benghazi diplomats, trampling Americans’ freedoms, waging war on Christianity, seizing Americans’ guns, waging war on white people, not being American, and being a usurper to the presidency, it is little wonder racially driven conservatives are plotting to overthrow the government. One can tell immediately that since none of the teabagger, religious right, and establishment Republican accusations are true, the only reasonable conclusion is that the entirety of the conservative movement is suffering from delusional schizophrenia that has driven their total and complete break from reality. The latest expression of the right’s delusion is a planned march on Washington by 30-million Americans to oust the Obama Administration and Democrats in Congress, convene a right wing tribunal, and appoint a new government consisting of a permanent Republican majority.

  15. rikyrah says:

    Democratic House Candidate’s Campaign Is Perfect Model On How To Embrace Obamacare

    [….] Kimber is the Democratic candidate for the US House of Representatives in California’s 50th Congressional district. He is running against Republican incumbent Duncan Hunter. Initially, I wrote off any chance that Kimber would have at winning this seat, as the demographics and Hunter’s name recognition seemed to create too much of a deficit to overcome.[….] Meanwhile, Kimber has pounded the pavement, speaking personally to many of the district’s residents, whether they are Republican, Democrat or independent. Throughout his campaign, Kimber has made sure to not shy away from the Affordable Care Act. In fact, he’s fully embraced the law and engaged people directly in conversation about the law’s benefits.[….]

    “You son suffered a traumatic brain injury. It doesn’t get much worse
    than that. You took him to the hospital so it’s well documented and that will follow him around forever so he’ll never get insurance. Or, if he could get insurance it will be so expensive he won’t be able to afford it; or if he could afford it, it won’t provide him with all the coverage he would need. BUT, because of the Affordable Care Act, pre-existing conditions are a thing of the past and your son can get insurance.” The father was quiet for a minute or two and then looked at me and said “I never thought of it that way”.[….]

    Kimber also provided another example of changing a leery person’s mind. This person was actually antagonistic towards Kimber to start off, and Kimber was able to not only change his point of view, but actually assisted him with getting an affordable health plan.[….]

  16. rikyrah says:

    thank you 3CHICS for that Bundy tweet

  17. rikyrah says:

    First lady receives plea from daughter of unemployed man

    Posted by
    CNN White House Producer Adam Aigner-Treworgy

    Washington (CNN) – The children of Executive Office employees crowded into the East Room of the White House on Thursday to ask first lady Michelle Obama a question as part of the White House’s annual celebration of Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work Day.

    While most children used their question to ask Obama about her favorite food or drink or place to travel, one young girl seated in the front row took the opportunity to try to help her unemployed father

    My dad’s been out of a job for three years and I wanted to give you his resume,” the young girl quietly said, before handing the first lady a folded piece of paper.

    Taking the paper, Obama hugged the little girl and whispered something to her away from the microphone. Many of the other children in the audience, unable to hear what the girl had said, immediately asked the first lady what their exchange had been about.

    “Well it’s a little private, but she’s doing something for her dad, right?,” the First Lady said, looking at the girl and holding up her father’s resume. “Got it.”

    Obama made sure to grab the piece of paper off the table next to her at the end of the event and give the girl one more hug on her way out.

  18. rikyrah says:

    AFP finances rival those of a major political party

    04/24/14 11:05 AM

    By Steve Benen

    Reporting on campaign fundraising is difficult and often unsatisfying. It’s just too easy to get lost in a sea of zeroes and acronyms, with competing campaign committees and candidates filing monthly and quarterly reports that few pay any attention to. The numbers seem pointless.

    That said, I hope folks will pause to look at one number is particular: $35 million

  19. Ametia says:

    George Clooney called Steve Wynn an a**hole and stormed off at dinner
    George Clooney has confessed to calling Las Vegas gambling mogul Steve Wynn an ‘a**hole’ and storming off at a recent dinner because the casino-owner insulted President Barack Obama.

    The verbal assault occurred two weeks ago when the two-time Oscar winner was in Vegas promoting his Casamigos tequila, and was invited to dine with Wynn and his wife, Andrea Hissom, at the fancy Botero restaurant inside the 72-year-old’s Encore hotel.

    But when dinner was finished, the conversation turned to Obama’s Affordable Care Act, of which Wynn is a vocal opponent. That’s when sparks began to fly.

  20. rikyrah says:

    Wynn, Clooney exchange barbs over heated dinner conversation
    April 22, 2014

    Hotel-casino developer Steve Wynn and actor George Clooney offered vastly different accounts Tuesday of a dinner that ended in verbal fireworks.

    Wynn said Clooney “got drunk” from downing tequila shots and stormed off after delivering an F-bomb.

    The two-time Oscar winner issued the following statement in an email sent through his publicist: “There were nine people at that table … so you can ask them. … Steve likes to go on rants.

    “He called the president an asshole … that is a fact … I said the President was my longtime friend and then he said ‘your friend is an asshole.’ … At that point I told Steve that HE was an asshole and I wasn’t going to sit at his table while he was being such a jackass.

    “And I walked out. There were obviously quite a few more adjectives and adverbs used by both of us. Those are all the facts. It had nothing to do with politics and everything to do with character.”

  21. rikyrah says:

    Who is the Nigger? -James Baldwin (clip)

  22. rikyrah says:

    Lupita Nyong’o Meets Her Beauty Icon, Alek Wek
    Published on Apr 23, 2014
    The actress says that having tea with her role model is “a dream come true”

  23. Ametia says:

    So that cracker Bundy thinks we negroes were a happy lot back in the days of Dixie and cotton-picking huh? SG2, where that series you posted on THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BLACK FAMILY?

  24. rikyrah says:

    Are Stores Making Bank Off Food Stamps?

    How much of Walmart’s revenue comes from its shoppers’ food stamps? The store isn’t required to say. But a January Court of Appeals ruling could change that. If the unanimous decision by the 8th Circuit’s panel of three judges holds, the United States Department of Agriculture will be required to release data indicating exactly how much of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program’s $80 billion in annual sales is paid to specific retailers and individual stores.[….]

    The Argus case follows a 2010 incident in which Massachusetts officials threatened reporter Michael Morisy of
    with fines or imprisonment for publishing SNAP retailer sales data
    obtained from the state’s welfare agency under a basic information
    request.[….] Earlier this month, Marketplace’s Krissy Clark reported that Walmart executives estimate that 18 percent of all SNAP sales are conducted at its stores—about $13 billion annually. In 2011, reporters at the Tulsa World found that Walmart accounted for nearly half of all SNAP spending in Oklahoma.[….]

  25. rikyrah says:

    Donald Trump Has Some Very Serious Thoughts About the Way Obama Walks
    by Josh Feldman | 8:22 pm, April 22nd, 2014

    Donald Trump (a.k.a. the biggest troll alive) now has some strange thoughts on, of all things, the way President Obama walks down the steps of Air Force One.

    And it’s not just that he critiqued the way the president walks, he actually called it unpresidential.

  26. rikyrah says:

    Meet The Companies That Just Promised To Pull 60 Million Dollars From Private Prisons

    [….] Scopia Capital, DSM, and Amica Mutual Insurance have all pledged to remove their collective investments of about $60,000,000 from the Corrections Corporation of America and the GEO Group — the two prison companies that own 75 percent of the nation’s private prisons. The decision to divest comes on the heels of pressure from Color Of Change, a racial and economic justice advocacy group that ran a campaign asking a total 150 companies to stop investing in the private prison industry.[….]

    Other groups have previously reportedly divested, as well, but this may be the largest single successful divestment campaign.[….] CCA lost four of its prison contracts with states last year — and that combined with slowly falling imprisonment rates may actually make private prisons not just morally questionable but financially unstable, Takei pointed out.[….]

  27. rikyrah says:

    Celebrating James Baldwin, as Many Classrooms Ignore Him

    April 24, 2014
    James Baldwin’s 1953 novel, “Go Tell It on the Mountain,” about a Harlem teenager’s search for meaning, quickly became a classic, along with his searing essays about race published a decade later in the book “The Fire Next Time.” But in recent years Baldwin’s presence has diminished in many high school classrooms.

    In a year that marks the 90th anniversary of his birth, educators offer different reasons for Baldwin’s faded presence there, from the concern that he is too controversial and complex to the perception that he has been eclipsed by other African-American voices. Collectively the explanations illustrate how attitudes about race have changed, along with the way the high school literary experience has evolved according to currents in the field.

  28. rikyrah says:

    In 2014, it’s like deja vu all over again

    04/24/14 10:19 AM
    By Steve Benen

    The New York Times published some new polling yesterday, showing Democrats in better-than-expected shape in U.S. Senate races in the South. Indeed, the results showed Dem incumbents ahead in Arkansas, Louisiana, and North Carolina, and a Dem challenger looking very competitive in Kentucky.

    Discouraged Republicans had a few choices. They could argue, for example, that individual polls are less important than larger averages based on multiple surveys. The GOP could also respond that it’s early in the cycle and there are still structural elements in place that still favor Republicans. They could even credibly claim that some of the results may have been an outlier.

    But that’s not what happened. Bill Kristol, the Republican National Committee, and conservatives everywhere instead dug into the internals to declare the poll is … skewed. It’s as if 2012 has already escaped their memories.

    As a substantive matter, Brian Beutler argued persuasively that the critique is misguided.

  29. rikyrah says:

    Bundy: ‘I want to tell you one more thing I know about the Negro…’

    04/24/14 09:13 AM—Updated 04/24/14 09:33 AM
    By Steve Benen

    Political figures who rallied to defend Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy must have known they were taking a risk. Indeed, much of the Republican establishment chose to do the exact opposite precisely because they were afraid to gamble on a man who doesn’t recognize the legitimacy of the United States government.

    But some prominent GOP officials rolled the dice anyway. Fox News and Glenn Beck celebrated the rancher as a hero, while U.S. senators like Rand Paul (R-Ky.) and Dean Heller (R-Nev.) cheered Bundy on, calling him a “patriot,” even as he declared an ability to ignore laws and court orders he doesn’t like.

    It’s become increasingly difficult to maintain this posture. For one thing, anyone relying on the threat of violence to act above the law hasn’t earned the backing of anyone in the American mainstream. For another, some of the basic elements of Bundy’s claims now appear to be false.

    Making matters considerably worse, the New York Times’ Adam Nagourney reports that Bundy spoke with supporters over the weekend about his views on a variety of societal issues.

    “I want to tell you one more thing I know about the Negro,” he said. Mr. Bundy recalled driving past a public-housing project in North Las Vegas, “and in front of that government house the door was usually open and the older people and the kids – and there is always at least a half a dozen people sitting on the porch – they didn’t have nothing to do. They didn’t have nothing for their kids to do. They didn’t have nothing for their young girls to do.

    “And because they were basically on government subsidy, so now what do they do?” he asked. “They abort their young children, they put their young men in jail, because they never learned how to pick cotton. And I’ve often wondered, are they better off as slaves, picking cotton and having a family life and doing things, or are they better off under government subsidy? They didn’t get no more freedom. They got less freedom.”

    Congratulations, Sean Hannity. You really know how to pick ‘em.

    I’m reminded of a recent quote from a Nevada conservative activist who told Politico, “It’s like, really, Glenn Beck? This is the issue you want to get behind? People who aren’t in tune with the story just jumped all over it. And then you go back and read the facts of the story, and then you go, ‘Uh oh.’”

    And that was a week ago, before Bundy decided to start prefacing his remarks by saying, “I want to tell you one more thing I know about the Negro….”

    Frankly, it was pretty obvious before that federal lawmakers like Rand Paul and Dean Heller were making a huge mistake rallying behind Bundy. When it comes to choosing a proper cause celebre, it’s best not to choose a man who’s said, “I don’t recognize [the] United States government as even existing,” and whose supporters appeared prepared for a confrontation – a potentially violent confrontation – with American law enforcement.

  30. rikyrah says:

    The line even the Kochs’ AFP can’t cross

    04/24/14 08:00 AM
    By Steve Benen

    Four years ago, then-Gov. Joe Manchin (D) was running for the Senate in his home state of West Virginia, where President Obama wasn’t especially popular. Republicans thought they’d have a better shot against the popular governor if they tied him to the man in the Oval Office. That proved to be a tricky task.

    The GOP could apparently only find one photo of Manchin and Obama together, so they quickly inserted it into an attack ad. But there was a problem: the image was from the late Sen. Robert Byrd’s memorial service. The Byrd family condemned the cheap shot, insisting there must still be some lines of decency, even in contemporary politics, after someone dies.

    Four years later, it’s a lesson the Koch brothers’ American for Prosperity temporarily forgot.

  31. rikyrah says:

    Now Republicans Are Upset Obamacare Doesn’t Help More People

    More than 8 million people have signed up for private insurance plans through the Affordable Care Act, several million more have gotten coverage through Medicaid, and polling from several independent organizations suggests that the number of Americans without insurance is falling by a substantial margin. In response, some Republicans are changing the focus of their arguments. Even if the law isn’t the total failure conservatives once imagined, they’re saying, it’s still very far short of a success.

    Here, for example, is a recent tweet from the office of Kevin McCarthy, the House Majority Whip: “The President’s health care law continues to fall short of covering the uninsured, but he still claims it’s ‘working.’” The tweet included a link to an article, published in, focusing on the many millions of Americans who aren’t getting health insurance from the law—and won’t anytime soon.


    But to hear that criticism from the likes of McCarthy is a bit much. Remember, House Republicans have voted to repeal Obamacare 50 times. They have voted on serious Obamacare alternatives exactly zero times. They haven’t even made a serious attempt to get a bill out of committee, let alone hold a floor debate. A few Republican lawmakers have crafted proposals on their own, as have some conservative intellectuals. But GOP leaders have made it very clear they want nothing to do with these plans.

    In addition, a major reason the Affordable Care Act isn’t reaching more people is that Republicans have done their best to limit the law’s reach—primarily, by blocking expansions of Medicaid in states where conservative Republicans hold sway. You’ve probably heard all about this by now, particularly if you read my colleague Alec MacGillis. If not, however, you can just read the very same article that McCarthy’s tweet highlights. It’s right there in the text:

  32. rikyrah says:

    President Obama Tears Apart CNN’s Lazy and Biased Press Conference Question

    During a joint press conference with Prime Minister Abe of Japan, CNN embarrassed themselves with a biased question that President Obama dismantled with facts.[….]

    PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, Jim, let me unpack that question because there’s a whole bunch of assumptions in there, some of which I don’t agree with. First of all, the treaty between the United States and Japan preceded my birth, so obviously, this isn’t a “red line” that I’m drawing; it is the standard interpretation over multiple administrations of the terms of the alliance, which is that territories under the administration of Japan are covered under the treaty. There’s no shift in position. There’s no “red line” that’s been drawn. We’re simply applying the treaty.[….]

    With respect to the other issues that you raise, our position, Jim,
    the United States’ position is that countries should abide by
    international law[….] Now, the implication of the question I think is, is
    that each and every time a country violates one of those norms the United States should go to war, or stand prepared to engage militarily, and if it doesn’t then somehow we’re not serious about those norms.

    Well, that’s not the case. Right now, we have 87 percent of serious chemical weapons have already been removed from Syria. There’s about 13 percent left. That’s as a consequence of U.S. leadership. And the fact that we didn’t have to fire a missile to get that accomplished is not a failure to uphold those international norms, it’s a success. It’s not a complete success until we have the last 13 percent out.[….]

  33. rikyrah says:

    NFL players talk about race with Harvard students
    — Apr. 23, 2014 7:15 PM EDT

    CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (AP) — Richard Sherman was called all kinds of names after his raging rant at the end of the NFC championship game. It was worth it, the Seattle cornerback said, because it gave him a chance to talk about the perception of black athletes to a wider audience.

    First, at the Super Bowl.

    On Wednesday, at Harvard.

    “I wanted to educate the uneducated,” Sherman said in a discussion at the Harvard Business School. “I felt the need to turn the discussion on its head.”

    Sherman was mostly known only by football fans before his admittedly overexcited postgame trash-talk about Michael Crabtree after the Seahawks beat the San Francisco 49ers to win the NFC title. As he became the center of attention during Super Bowl week, Sherman chose not to back down from the comments.

    “I don’t regret anything about it,” he said, though he later conceded that it was a “bad moment.” ”I chose my words very carefully, though I couldn’t control my tone. My delivery left something to be desired. But I knew what I was doing. When they called me a ‘thug,’ I provoked a discussion.”

    That discussion took him to Harvard, along with former NFL Players Association President Domonique Foxworth, Houston Texans running back Arian Foster and Arizona Cardinals receiver Larry Fitzgerald. They gave two talks, one at the business school that was supposed to be about social media that quickly veered into a discussion of race; the other, to undergraduates in historic Harvard Yard, was introduced as, “The Modern Black Male Athlete.”

    Both were packed with a standing-room crowd. A handful of attendees wore Seahawks jerseys or hats.

  34. rikyrah says:

    Great pics by smartypants of this Administration with children.

  35. rikyrah says:

    Southern Whites’ Loyalty to G.O.P. Nearing That of Blacks to Democrats
    By NATE COHN April 23, 2014

    President Obama’s landslide victory in 2008 was supposed to herald the beginning of a new Democratic era. And yet, six years later, there is not even a clear Democratic majority in the country, let alone one poised for 30 years of dominance.

    It’s not because Mr. Obama’s so-called new coalition of young and nonwhite voters failed to live up to its potential. They again turned out in record numbers in 2012. The Democratic majority has failed to materialize because the Republicans made large, countervailing and unappreciated gains of their own among white Southerners.

    From the high plains of West Texas to the Atlantic Coast of Georgia, white voters opposed Mr. Obama’s re-election in overwhelming numbers. In many counties 90 percent of white voters chose Mitt Romney, nearly the reversal of the margin by which black voters supported Mr. Obama.

    While white Southerners have been voting Republican for decades, the hugeness of the gap was new. Mr. Obama often lost more than 40 percent of Al Gore’s support among white voters south of the historically significant line of the Missouri Compromise. Two centuries later, Southern politics are deeply polarized along racial lines. It is no exaggeration to suggest that in these states the Democrats have become the party of African Americans and that the Republicans are the party of whites

  36. rikyrah says:

    Wednesday, April 23, 2014

    What the clemency initiative tells us about President Obama

    At the end of his first term, President Obama had granted clemency to one person. Of course this led many people to conclude that he didn’t care about criminal justice reform or correcting the racial disparities in that system – especially those created by our “war on drugs.” As of this week, we know those conclusions were premature.

    The shift started early in the President’s second term when he basically announced an end to the war on drugs saying, “we simply cannot incarcerate our way out of the drug problem.” Then last December, he commuted the sentences of eight federal prisoners who were serving long sentences due to crack cocaine convictions prior to the Fair Sentencing Act. Of course there were plenty of progressives who took that as an opportunity to talk about the thousands of others who were not granted clemency and lecture President Obama about the importance of courage.

    But this was never about a lack of courage. Instead, its about a cultural bureaucracy that needed to be reformed.

    The pardon attorney, former military judge Ronald Rodgers, sends his recommendations of whether or not to grant the petitions to the Deputy Attorney General’s office, which then sends them on to the White House. The pardon attorney was recommending that the president deny nearly every single petition for a pardon or a reduced sentence, according to one senior official in the Obama administration.

    We also know that the President didn’t like the kinds of recommendations that he was getting.

    The president complained that the pardon attorney’s office favored petitions from wealthy and connected people, who had good lawyers and knew how to game the system. The typical felon recommended for clemency by the pardon attorney was a hunter who wanted a pardon so that he could apply for a hunting license.

    We are in the process of learning that the work on all this has been underway for quite some time. Armed with a scathing report from the Inspector General’s Office that concluded in December 2012, Ronald Rodgers is now gone from the pardon attorney’s office and will be replaced by Deborah Leff who has been Senior Counselor for Access to Justice at DOJ, an initiative launched in 2010 to:

  37. rikyrah says:

    Republicans Freak Out After Polls Show Democrats Leading 3 Out of 4 Senate Races
    by: Jason Easley
    Wednesday, April, 23rd, 2014, 8:48 pm

    Republicans are freaking out after new polls showed Democrats leading or tied in four key Southern Senate races.

    The latest New York Times Upshot/Kaiser Family Foundation Senate polls contained some bad news for Republicans. In three out of four Senate races they polled, Democrats led. In the one race where a Republican led, the lead was within the margin of error. In Arkansas, Democratic Sen. Mark Pryor leads his Republican challenger Rep. Tom Cotton, 46%-36%. In North Carolina, Sen. Kay Hagan leads her likely opponent, Thom Tillis, 42%-40%. In Louisiana Democrat Sen. Mary Landrieu leads 42%-18%, but due to Louisana’s non-primary system, Landrieu has to get 50% or more of the general election vote to win another term. If Landrieu finishes first, but with less than 50% of the vote, she will face a runoff. In Kentucky, Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell is statistically tied with his Democratic opponent Alison Lundergan Grimes. McConnell leads 43%-42%.

    Republicans have been trying to suppress the potential Democratic turnout in November by spreading throughout the media the idea that they were a lock to win the Senate in November. It turns out that a Republican victory in November is far from a sure thing. In fact, Republicans could end up losing some seats that in red states.

  38. rikyrah says:

    MJ’s Thriller by the Disney Frozen Characters

  39. rikyrah says:

    Nerdy Wonka @NerdyWonka
    Cliven Bundy just showed what a racist he is and the hatred he has for African-Americans but conservatives on #SCOTUS say racism is dead.

    11:19 PM – 23 Apr 2014

  40. rikyrah says:

    Wednesday, April 23, 2014 | 3:56 PM

    Shonda Rhimes to Deliver Commencement Speech at Dartmouth College
    By Dominique Hobdy

    Shonda Rhimes is headed back to her Alma Mater, Dartmouth College, this June.

    The Emmy-nominated creator of Scandal, Grey’s Anatomy and Private Practice will deliver the 2014 commencement address at the Ivy League institution, reports The Root.

    The Golden Globe winner and Emmy nominee graduated from the university in 1991 with a degree in English literature and creative writing.

    Rhimes says she was shocked when she got the offer, “I was speechless because I often feel the same way I did when I was 20 years old–that I can’t possibly be the grown up in the room, but apparently I am.”

  41. rikyrah says:

    Wednesday, April 23, 2014 | 7:00 PM

    Doc McStuffins Embraces Her Natural Hair—The Cutest Episode Ever!
    By Deena Campbell

    Doc McStuffins has always been one of our favorite animated girls—she’s smart, adorable, and says the darnest things. Well, we fell in love with her all over again in the newest episode that highlights Doc meeting Curly Q, a doll who’s armed with a head full of big, curly locks.

    After giving Curly Q a check-up, Doc tells Curly she’s in good health and has no problems, but Curly Q hates her hair texture and wants a change. When our favorite six-year-old explains that even she didn’t like her hair until she learned how to style it with her signature pigtails, we learn that even six year olds are encouraging others to embrace their natural hair texture. How cute!

    Check out the sneak peak below and be sure to watch the full “Take Your Doc to Work Day” episode Thursday, April 24 at 9:30 a.m., ET/PT on the Disney Channel.

  42. Ametia says:

    Overseas, President Obama projects a whole lot of nothing
    By Dana Milbank, Published: April 23

    President Obama landed in Japan onWednesday night and delivered an important message on behalf of the American people.

    “That’s some good sushi right there,” he said.

  43. rikyrah says:

    Sharpton Says “Snitch” Headlines Only Helped NAN Convention
    Apr 23, 2014
    By NewsOne Staff

    According to the Rev Al Sharpton, front page headlines that described him as a ‘snitch’ and a ‘rat’ only helped to make this year’s NAN Convention the largest ever.

    His response to the news reports: ‘Are y’all going to accuse me of bringing down the mob? I’ve had worse headlines, now

  44. rikyrah says:

    Updated: 5:17 p.m. Tuesday, April 22, 2014 |
    Posted: 6:00 p.m. Monday, April 21, 2014

    Tyler Perry steps in to help family of sick teen

    A family that faced eviction upon returning from a Make-A-Wish event has new hope for a stable home.

    Xernna Nieves said her family arrived home at their Stockbridge apartment to find an eviction notice.

    The family lives in the Ashley Woods Apartments. Nieves’ 16-year-old son has severe aplastic anemia and has already had two bone marrow transplants.

    At the time, Nieves said she could not put into words what it would mean if she and her family of five were evicted.

    “I have no place to go. I really have no place to go,” she told Channel 2’s Jade Hernandez Monday evening.

    Nieves admitted she has had trouble paying rent and hasn’t been paying on time, but the apartment complex has always worked with her and in turn, she always pays rent.

    The Make-A-Wish foundation paid for her son, John Williams, to fly to meet Chicago Bulls basketball star Derrick Rose.

    “I felt like I was a celebrity with him,” Williams said.

    But his mother was snapped back to reality when she tried paying back rent for March and April.

    “I was told that corporate office told her not to accept any more rent money from us,” Nieves said.

    With her son’s illness, there hasn’t been a chance for her to bounce back or find a way to better the situation, she said.

    “I don’t have access to public transportation. I don’t have a car. I can’t get around,” Nieves said.

    Nieves said she receives no child support for her four children and she lost her job nearly two years ago.

    An eviction would mean heading to a shelter and the mother says that would put her son at risk for a weakened immune system.

    When Tyler Perry saw Nieves’ story on Channel 2 Action News Monday night, he reached out and offered to pay her rent for one year.

    “Thank you. Thank you for watching the news when you did,” Nieves said.

  45. The Bee Gees!!! Yeah baby!

  46. Ametia says:

    F.C.C., in a Shift, Backs Fast Lanes for Web Traffic
    By EDWARD WYATT | APRIL 23, 2014

    WASHINGTON — The principle that all Internet content should be treated equally as it flows through cables and pipes to consumers looks all but dead.

    The Federal Communications Commission said on Wednesday that it would propose new rules that allow companies like Disney, Google or Netflix to pay Internet service providers like Comcast and Verizon for special, faster lanes to send video and other content to their customers.

  47. rikyrah says:

    A Defiant Rancher Savors the Audience That Rallied to His Side

    APRIL 23, 2014

    BUNKERVILLE, Nev. — Cliven Bundy stood by the Virgin River up the road from the armed checkpoint at the driveway of his ranch, signing autographs and posing for pictures. For 55 minutes, Mr. Bundy held forth to a clutch of supporters about his views on the troubled state of America — the overreaching federal government, the harassment of Western ranchers, the societal upheaval caused by abortion, even musing about whether slavery was so bad.

    Most of all, Mr. Bundy, 67, who was wearing a broad-brimmed white cowboy hat against the hot afternoon sun, recounted the success of “we the people” — gesturing to the 50 supporters, some armed with handguns and rifles, standing in a semicircle before him — at chasing away Bureau of Land Management rangers who, acting on a court order, tried to confiscate 500 cattle owned by Mr. Bundy, who has been illegally grazing his herd on public land since 1993.


    He said he would continue holding a daily news conference; on Saturday, it drew one reporter and one photographer, so Mr. Bundy used the time to officiate at what was in effect a town meeting with supporters, discussing, in a long, loping discourse, the prevalence of abortion, the abuses of welfare and his views on race.

    “I want to tell you one more thing I know about the Negro,” he said. Mr. Bundy recalled driving past a public-housing project in North Las Vegas, “and in front of that government house the door was usually open and the older people and the kids — and there is always at least a half a dozen people sitting on the porch — they didn’t have nothing to do. They didn’t have nothing for their kids to do. They didn’t have nothing for their young girls to do.

    Continue reading the main story

    “And because they were basically on government subsidy, so now what do they do?” he asked. “They abort their young children, they put their young men in jail, because they never learned how to pick cotton. And I’ve often wondered, are they better off as slaves, picking cotton and having a family life and doing things, or are they better off under government subsidy? They didn’t get no more freedom. They got less freedom.”

    A spokesman for Mr. Paul, informed of Mr. Bundy’s remarks, said the senator was not available for immediate comment. Chandler Smith, a spokesman for Mr. Heller, said that the senator “completely disagrees with Mr. Bundy’s appalling and racist statements, and condemns them in the most strenuous way.” A spokeswoman for Mr. Abbott, Laura Bean, said that the letter he wrote “was regarding a dispute in Texas and is in no way related to the dispute in Nevada.”

  48. Yahtc says:

    Born on this day:

    David Harold Blackwell (April 24, 1919 – July 8, 2010) was Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley, and is one of the eponyms of the Rao–Blackwell theorem.[ Born in Centralia, Illinois, he was the first African American inducted into the National Academy of Sciences, and the first black tenured faculty member at UC Berkeley.”

    (from Wikipedia)

    • Yahtc says:

      • Yahtc says:

      • Ametia says:

        Thanks for the vids, Yahtc.

      • Yahtc says:

        YW, Ametia :)

        Also born on this day:

        Yvonne Darlene Cagle (born April 24, 1959, in West Point, New York, United States) is an African American NASA astronaut.
        “Yvonne Cagle received her bachelor’s degree in biochemistry from San Francisco State University in 1981, and a doctor of medicine degree from the University of Washington in 1985. She completed a transitional internship at Highland General Hospital in Oakland, California in 1985 and received a certificate in Aerospace Medicine from the School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, in 1988. She then went on to complete a residency in family practice at Ghent FP at Eastern Virginia Medical School in 1992 and received certification as a senior aviation medical examiner from the Federal Aviation Administration in 1995.
        “Yvonne Cagle was a member of the Astronaut Class of 1996 (NASA Astronaut Group 16). She is currently assigned to Johnson Space Center’s Space and Life Sciences Directorate.
        “Dr. Cagle is also an advisor for NASA’s Flight Opportunities Program (originally named CRuSR – Commercial Reusable Suborbital Research Program). Currently Dr. Cagle is on faculty and serves as the NASA liaison for exploration and space development with Singularity University. During the workshop, Dr. Cagle was embedded with the crew as a crew training consultant and advisor, providing insights and feedback to both crew and study team from the viewpoint of an astronaut, flight surgeon, space development expert and science liaison.
        She has recently been selected reserve crew for Hawai‘i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS), which is part of a study for NASA to determine the best way to keep astronauts well nourished during multiple-year missions to Mars or the moon.”(from Wikipedia)

        Photo of Yvonne Cagle:

      • Yahtc says:

  49. Yahtc says:

    Good Morning, Everyone :)

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